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How can I properly reference the copyright lecture?

I have studied PHP I : Foundation with Zend. I have to refer to this electronic pdf lecture. There is no link provide since it handed out in class.

Or I should follow the patent format


Zend, 2011, PHP I Foundations-Participant Guide, copyright 2006-2011 Zend Technologies Inc.

1 answer


Hi there, 

Yu Lee's picture
Yu Lee (not verified), 1 year ago

Hi there, 

Generally the author of lecture notes is the lecturer who delivered the lecture, however, in this case, as you noted, the author should be Zend.  However, I’d use the official corporate title.

Usually I would recommend you to find the original document.  If you can find the original document on Internet, then your reference should look like:

Zend Technologies Inc., 2011, PHP I Foundations-Participant Guide, viewed 17 October 2012, <http://weexcel.co.za/download/PHPI_Foundations_Participant_Guide_EXERCISES_v6-3.pdf>

If you are unable to locate the original document, you could reference it as:

Zend Technologies Inc., 2011, ‘PHP I Foundations-Participant Guide’, UTS Short Course: PHP I Foundation, handout, UTS, Sydney.


Yu Lee 







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