This study guide has been designed to supplement the EndNote for Law classes run by the UTS Library. It provides information about the use of EndNote for law from creating your EndNote library and inserting EndNote references into a Word document, creating a bibliography and adding pinpoint references to your footnotes. This guide is not a substitute for attending an EndNote for Law class and UTS Library strongly suggests that you attend a class in order to be able to effectively use EndNote.
There is a printed guide that summarises much of the information below.
- Notes describing the different reference types in AGLC 3rd edition (PDF)
- Creating your EndNote Library
- Inserting EndNote References into a Word Document
- Adding Pinpoints to References
- Organising your Bibliography into Categories
- Editing your Reference List
- Ibid and Above n
Note: you'll find more guidance about what fields to use for various references on our EndNote Law: Citations page
Judges and their titles should all be listed on one line exactly as you want them to appear, eg Gleeson CJ, Gummow & Hayne JJ
Author names format - enter authors as Surname, First name. They will appear this way in bibliography but in footnotes they will appear as First name Surname.
Enter years without brackets. EndNote will automatically apply the appropriate bracket style.
Journal titles should be entered in full.
URLs should be entered into the URL field without brackets. When you have a URL you must also enter the Access Date (ie the full date you viewed the website).
Published Conference papers: treat as Book Chapter reference type.
Film or Audiovisual Material: use 'Type' field to specify format, e.g. motion picture, video recording, audio cassette etc.
Regulations, other Delegated Legislation, Constitutions: use Statute reference type
United Nations Document: type the Resolution Number in full (eg GA Res 34/40); type the Subdivision in full (eg 2110th mtg)
- In EndNote, select the reference(s) you wish to insert into your footnote
- In Word, use Word's insert footnotes function to place a footnote into your document
- Place your cursor into the footnote at the bottom of the page
- Click on Insert Citation, Insert Selected Citation(s) Word's EndNote Toolbar. This adds the citation(s) into the footnote; and also into the reference list at the end of your document.
Adding a Pinpoint Reference:
- Insert page number or paragraph number pinpoints into a footnote by clicking on the citation and then using the Edit & Manage Citations icon in Word's EndNote Toolbar or Tab.
- Type the number(s) into the Pages box in the Edit Citation window.
For Conference Paper, Report and United Nations Document reference types, enclose the number(s) typed in square brackets if you wish to indicate a paragraph number rather than a page number.
For pinpoint references to sections of Acts, Bills or Treaties, type in the abbreviation for the section as well as the number, eg type into the Pages box: s 67 to pinpoint section 67 of an Act; or art 5 to pinpoint article 5 of a Treaty.
AGLC guidelines (section 1.16 of the 3rd edition) state that reference materials must be organised by material type: Cases, Legislation etc. When using EndNote a bibliography automatically begins to form at the end of your Word document as you enter citations into the document. Initially, this bibliography will be organised in alphabetical order rather than by material type.
To organise your bibliography by material type according to AGLC guidelines:
- In Word's EndNote tab/toolbar, click on Categorize References, Configure Categories. The Configure Categories window will appear.
- In the Category Headings section, you'll want to see some or all of the following categories listed:
- Add the headings by right clicking on the names of the example headings and changing the names; and then right clicking and adding any new headings
- Once the headings are set up, click on All References in Bibliography (just above the list of headings) and drag and drop each reference into its appropriate category. Each reference can only be in one category but you can drag references from one category to another if you make a mistake. Uncategorized References shows any that have not yet been added to a category.
- The AGLC guidelines suggest you add A to E in front of the category names above. It's fine if you want to do this, but you should then remove any category that contains no references. In that case you'll need to use A to B, A to C, or A to D.
- Then click OK. You'll see the bibliography now shows the category headings with references under the appropriate headings.
- If you notice any errors, just go back to the Configure Categories window and correct them.
- If you later add additional references to your document these will appear in the bibliography in a category called Uncategorized References. To add these to a catagory just go to the Configure categories window and drag onto the appropriate category.
Editing your Reference List:
Most simple errors in the reference list (typos for example) should be corrected in your EndNote library; use Update Citations and Bibliography to implement these changes in Word. Remove a citation from the reference list by selecting it in the footnote where it was cited, clicking on Edit & Manage Citations, and using the drop down menu next to the citation in the upper half of the Edit & Manage Citations window to Remove it. Removing a citation from a footnote in this way does not remove it from the reference list if it was cited in another footnote.
If you need to, use Convert Citations and Bibliography / Convert to Plain Text in Word's EndNote Tab (on a Mac this is in the Tools dropdown in the EndNote toolbar) to create a "clean" version of your document (ie without all the hidden EndNote codes). This allows you to edit the document in Word. You can then:
- move sections of the bibliography around (if you wish, though this should not be necessary)
- edit references in your footnotes
- make changes to pinpoints.
Organising your Bibliography into Categories: see above.
Ibid and Above n
Sometimes you will need to refer to the same reference in different footnotes, possibly with different pinpoints.
If the footnotes are consecutive
Insert citations and pinpoints in the footnotes as normal. EndNote will automatically change citations in the consecutive footnotes to "Ibid.", leaving pinpoints intact.
Note: check the "Ibids" in your document. If these are followed by a pinpoint EndNote sometimes mistakenly leaves a full stop and comma directly after the Ibid (eg Ibid., 56.). You will need to remove the full stop and comma after the word Ibid (so that you have eg Ibid 56.), which you can only do using the plain text copy described in the section above. The latest version of the AGLC (UTS) style for EndNote (can be downloaded from our install page) should not have this problem.
If the footnotes are not consecutive
You need to insert an "above n" reference as follows:
- Insert the footnote as normal, but don't insert the citation from EndNote
- Type the author/s surname/s followed by a comma and a space
- Type "above n" followed by a space
- Click on References, Cross-reference (on a Mac, click on Insert, Cross-reference). A window opens.
- Choose Footnote in Reference Type: you'll see a numbered list of all the footnotes.
- Select the footnote in the list that you wish to refer to, and click Insert, then Close.
- You'll see the number of this footnote appear after the "above n " you typed earlier.
- Type a full stop; or if you have a pinpoint type a comma, a space, then the pinpoint, then a full stop.
As you insert more footnotes into the documents Word will automatically renumber the main footnote numbers as necessary. However, the numbers in the "above n" cross-references need to be manually updated to reflect these changes. This is easy! To update the cross-references:
- Select all footnotes by clicking into any footnote and then press Control + A (Command + A on a Mac) on your keyboard. You'll notice that the cross-reference numbers in the footnotes are a slightly darker grey than the rest of the text, similar to the inserted EndNote citations.
- Press the F9 key on your keyboard (on a Mac, right click or Control + click in the selected footnotes, and select Update Field).
- Say "yes" to this action when asked. All numbers will now be updated.
- You can do this as often as you like.