UTS Library

Legal Material

If you can't find the source you are trying to reference within this list or anywhere else within our referencing guide, please contact us via the Ask a Librarian page.

Please also note that this section is for Harvard UTS Style only. Please double check the reference style required, because Law students are usually required to use the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) style instead of Harvard UTS.

Case Law

Cases should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically. Cases are usually 'reported cases', which means they are written up in full in a legal report series (which is what is being cited). Occasionally reported cases require the year to be enclosed in square brackets rather than round ones - this will be clear to you from where you find the case. Also, sometimes a case is 'unreported', meaning it has not been written up in a legal report series, but can still be cited by referring to its court and judgment date (see example below).

The information you need to gather to reference a case includes:

    • case name in full (in italics)
    • year of judgment
    • volume number of the law report
    • abbreviated name of the law report
    • first page number

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text (reported case, reported case with square brackets, unreported case)

(Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd 1920)

(R v Kenney 1983)

(Maguire v Leather 2009)

Reference list (reported case, reported case with square brackets, unreported case)

Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1920) 28 CLR 129.

R v Kenney [1983] 2 VR 470.

Maguire v Leather [2009] HCASL 48 (12 March 2009).

 

Legislation

Legislation should be referenced as if in print, even if viewed electronically.

The information you need to gather to reference legislation includes:

    • name of Act (in italics)
    • year
    • jurisdiction

The Jurisdiction should be enclosed in parentheses, and in Australia should be one of Cth, NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA, Tas, ACT or NT.

In Text

(Crimes Act 1900)

You can specify particular sections of an Act if you wish, using s. for one section or ss. for several sections. For example:

(Crimes Act 1900, s. 41A)

Reference list

Crimes Act 1900 (NSW)

Bills

The information you need to gather to reference a Bill includes (note the name of the Bill is not in italics):

    • name of Bill
    • year
    • House of Parliament where introduced

In text

(Anti-terrorism Bill 2004)

Reference list

Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (House of Representatives)

Parlimentary Debates (Hansard)

In text

(Australia, House of Representatives 2000), (New South Wales, Legislative Assembly 2012)

Reference list 

Australia, House of Representatives 2000, Debates, vol. HR103, pp. 2-9.

New South Wales, Legislative Assembly 2012, Debates, 3 May, pp. 11095-11100.

Traditionally you should include the volume number of the Debates, as in the first example above, but many online versions of Hansard do not mention the volume number. In such cases it is acceptable to put the day and month of the debate instead, as in the second example above. You do not need to put the URL even if you viewed the Hansard online. Page numbers of online Hansard can be found on the pdf version.

Treaties

The information you need to gather to reference a Treaty includes:

    • name of treaty (in italics)
    • year the treaty was signed or opened for signature (in parentheses)
    • volume number of treaty series
    • abbreviated name of treaty series
    • first page number
    • date signed or opened for signature
    • date the treaty entered into force (if different from previous date)

In text

(Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands 1921)

Note: if the treaty name is quite long (as in this example) and you want to refer to it many times in the text, you can use the short form of the treaty name for your in-text citations, in this case (Aaland Islands convention 1921). You would need to add a 'see' reference into your reference list to direct readers to the full citation (see below).

Reference list

Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands (1921) 9 LNTS 211, opened for signature 20 October 1921, entered into force 6 April 1922.

Sometimes a treaty enters into force as soon as it is signed. In this case, after the first page you would instead have: signed and entered into force 6 April 1922.

Note: if you used a short form of the treaty name for your in-text citations you still need to put the full citation of the treaty in your reference list as above; but you also need to add a 'see' reference into the reference list to direct readers to the full citation. The 'see' reference goes into the reference list in alphabetical order just like a regular reference does. In this example, that would be:

Aaland Islands convention - see Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands

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