UTS Library

Other Sources

Referencing examples for other sources using the Harvard UTS Referencing style:

Case law or legislation

Normally, Case Law and Legislation are listed in separate sections, with these titles, directly after the main reference list.

Case law

Key elements of a Reported Case are:
Case name in full (in italics) (Year of the judgment) Volume no. Abbreviated name of the law reports series and first page numbers.

Cases should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically. Cases are usually 'reported cases', which means they are written up in full is a legal report series (which is what is being cited). Occasionally reported cases require the year to be enclosed in square brackets rather than rounded ones. Also, sometimes a case is 'unreported', meaning it has not been written up in a legal report series, but can still be cited by referring to its court and judgment date (see example below).

In text (reported case, reported case with square brackets, unreported case)

(Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd 1920)

(R v Kenney 1983)

(Maguire v Leather 2009)

Reference list (reported case, reported case with square brackets, unreported case)

Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1920) 28 CLR 129.

R v Kenney [1983] 2 VR 470.

Maguire v Leather [2009] HCASL 48 (12 March 2009).


Legislation should be referenced as if in print, even if viewed electronically.

Act or Statute

Key elements for an Act are:
Name of the Act (in italics) Year (in plain text) Jurisdiction.

The Jurisdiction should be enclosed in parentheses, and in Australia should be one of Cth, NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA, Tas, ACT or NT.


Key elements for a Bill are:
Name of Bill (in plain text) Year (in plain text) House of Parliament where introduced.

In text

(Crimes Act 1900) or (Copyright Act 1968) or (Anti-terrorism Bill 2004)

You can specify particular sections of an Act if you wish, using s. for one section or ss. for several sections. For example:

(Crimes Act 1900, s. 41A) and (Copyright Act 1968, ss. 40-42)

Reference list

Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (House of Representatives).

Copyright Act 1968 (Cth).

Crimes Act 1900 (NSW).

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias are referenced like a book with no author. If in print (or if online but the same as the print) you only need an in-text reference for a dictionary reference. You don't need to put print dictionaries in your reference list.

For an online-only dictionary or encyclopedia, because you need to include information about the web address, reference like an online book with no author, and include in your reference list. The web address should be the main website address, not the address of the particular entry you looked up (see examples below). As with an online book, if the place of publication is not given you can leave it out.

If quoting from an encyclopedia, use page numbers if in print; if online use the method for quoting from an online book. You don't need to put page numbers if quoting from a dictionary (because it's obvious where the quote comes from).

In text

Paper dictionary: Macquarie dictionary defines spruik as 'to harangue or address a meeting' (Macquarie Dictionary 2012).

Online dictionary: Collins dictionary defines the action to wimple as 'to cover with or put a wimple on' (Collins Dictionary 2012).

Paper Encyclopedia: Lemons are described as 'yellowy soury things that grow on trees' (Wiseman's Encyclopedia 2010, p. 767).

Online Encyclopedia: Oranges are described as 'round tangy things that grow on trees' (Acumen Encyclopedia 2007).

Reference list

[First example does not appear in the reference list because it's a print dictionary].

Collins Dictionary 2012, HarperCollins, London, viewed 15 November 2012, <http://www.collinsdictionary.com/>.

Wiseman's Encyclopedia 2010, 2nd edn, Wiseman Publishing, Captain's Flat, NSW.

Acumen Encyclopedia 2007, Acumen Publishing, viewed 15 November 2012, <http://www.acumenencyc.com/>.

Film, video or audiovisual

In text

(Muriel’s wedding 1994)

Reference list

Muriel's wedding 1994, motion picture, Roadshow Entertainment, Sydney.

The Edge of the possible 1998, DVD, Ronin Films, Canberra.

Key elements of a film or audiovisual reference are:

  • title (in italics)
  • year of publication or release
  • format (use motion picture for films; use video recording, CD-ROM, DVD, audio casette, slide, or microform etc for other audiovisual material)
  • distributor (for films) or publisher
  • place of recording or publication (for audiovisual material)

Although you are likely to view most feature films (ie movies) as DVDs you should still reference feature films with the format motion picture rather than 'DVD'.

Golden Target Awards

Use the name of the entrant company (that is, the company who prepared the campaign) as the author. Titles are in single quotes rather than italics because Golden Target Awards are not formally published.

In text

(ACT Government 2006) or (Creative Territory 2010) or (Weber Shandwick Australia 2009)

Reference list

ACT Government 2006, 'Live in Canberra campaign', Golden Target Award entry, unpublished.

Creative Territory 2010, '100 Days of Solar', Golden Target Award entry, unpublished.

Weber Shandwick Australia 2009, 'Bidwill Blitz Build', Golden Target Award entry, unpublished.

Image or artwork

Note: the format for referencing images was extensively revised in April 2014.

In-text references use the name of the creator of the original artwork, or when this is not known, the title of the artwork (in italics), plus the year the artwork was created. This might be a range of years if the artwork was created over several years or if only a time period is known. You can also use c. (short for circa, meaning 'around' in Latin) in front of the year to indicate an approximate year. Use n.d. (short for 'no date') when the date is unknown.

The reference list details depend on where the image was found. There are a number of different formats, see the examples below.

In text

(van Gogh 1890), (Rodin 1884-89), (Brodhead Public Library c. 1900), (Sculpture by the sea - Elephant 2009), (Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928), (Degas c. 1874), (Emperor Claudius 40-50), (Gaunt 1970, p. 17), (Rodin 1886), (Olley 2000)

Reference list

If the image is on a hosted site such as Google Cultural Institute or Flickr, place that name after the title. If the name of the photographer or the organisation that posted the image is known this can be indicated after the title as in the examples below. If the image is an illustration or design on a commercial product, use the product producer's company name as the author (see the Yardley example below).

When the image is from a publicly available website:

van Gogh, V. 1890, Undergrowth with two figures, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 4 March 2014, <http://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/undergrowth-with-two-figures/PgGaehoXTiERQQ?projectId=art-project>.

Rodin, A. 1884-89, Burghers of Calais, photographed by J. Howe, Boston College Fine Arts Department, viewed 3 April 2014, <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/rodin/rodin_burghers.html>.

Brodhead Public Library c. 1900, Wisconsin Historical Images, Flickr, viewed 8 December 2013, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/whsimages/4566401462>.

Sculpture by the sea - Elephant 2009, photographed by A. Wain, Flickr, viewed 27 February 2014, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexwain/4091011517/>.

When the image is from a commercial database (for example a database that is only accessible via the UTS Library website). Note that the URL is replaced by the name of the database plus any identifying cataloguing numbers:

Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928, Yardley's old English lavender soap, viewed 8 December 2010, <Ad*Access database, item: BH1950>.

Degas, E. c. 1874, The rehearsal of the ballet onstage, viewed 4 March 2014, <ARTstor database, ID number: 594>.

Emperor Claudius 40-50, photographed by I. Geske, viewed 5 March 2014, <ARTstor database, Accession number: 1965.10>.

When the image is in a printed source, reference the source and indicate where the image is within the source by a page number in the in-text reference (see the in-text example for Gaunt above):

Gaunt, W. 1970, The impressionists, Thames & Hudson, London. 

If you are referencing the original artwork itself (not an image created by someone else), the format is: Artist Year, Title, Type of Work, Museum or Gallery, City. You should also use this format if you are using your own image of an original artwork. If an artwork is in a private collection you do not need the city.

Rodin, A. 1886, The lovers, sculpture, Rodin Museum, Paris.

Olley, M. 2000, Proteas in the kitchen, painting, private collection.

If you are using an image of your own that is not an image of someone else's work, for example a photograph you took of a street scene or of an artwork you created, you do not have to reference it. Just make it clear in the text that the image is yours.

Joanna Briggs Institute documents

Documents from the Joanna Briggs Insititute for Evidence Based Practice database come in several different formats, which are referenced slightly differently. The examples below show how to reference: evidence summaries, systematic reviews, systematic review protocols, recommended practices, and best practice information sheets.

In text

(Fong 2013), (Pearson & Chalmers 2004), (Whitelaw & Wilson 2007), (Joanna Briggs Institute 2013), (Joanna Briggs Institute 2008)

Reference list 

Fong, E. 2013, 'Hand hygiene: alcohol-based solutions', evidence summary, viewed 30 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Insititute EBP database>.

Pearson, A. & Chalmers, J. 2004, 'Oral hygiene care for adults with dementia in residential aged care facilities', systematic review, viewed 30 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Institute EBP database>.

Whitelaw, J. & Wilson, A. 2007, 'Barriers to compliance with effective hand hygiene practices by neonatal health care workers: a systematic review', systematic review protocol, viewed 29 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Institute EBP database>.

Joanna Briggs Institute 2013, 'Hygiene management', recommended practice, viewed 12 March 2014, <Joanna Briggs Institute EBP database>.

Joanna Briggs Insititute 2008, 'Management of peripheral intravascular devices', Best Practice: evidence-based information sheets for health professionals, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1-4, viewed 30 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Institute EBP database>.

The name of the database appears instead of a URL because these documents come from a subscription database that is not accessible except via the library. If a document does not have an author, as in the last two examples, use Joanna Briggs Institute as the author. The last example is for a best practice information sheet.

Lecture notes, PowerPoint, or something listed in UTS Online


Referencing a PowerPoint slide, lecture notes or subject documents found on the web (eg UTS Online) is similar to referencing a website. So you need to include the date you viewed it, and the URL.

If you are referencing an article or book chapter contained within course material, reference it as the original hard copy article or book chapter, even if the course material is online.

If you are referencing lecture notes that you took in class, see the In class notes section below.

Quote from a work citing another author

A PowerPoint slide or lecture notes may sometimes quote a work from another author. You can use such a quote, and note the original author of the quote in the text of your assignment, but the in-text citation should be to the author of the PowerPoint slide or lecture notes where you actually read the quote. The Book and Journal Article sections of this quide have some examples of what this might look like.

In your reference list you should have the full reference for the PowerPoint slide or lecture notes that cited the 'other' author. You don't need the 'other' author in your reference list because you did not actually use their work directly,

UTS Online

Lecture Notes

(Allen 2012)

Allen, B. 2012, ‘Things you need to know about groceries’, UTS Online Subject 95206, lecture notes, UTS, Sydney, viewed 28 March 2012, <www.online.uts.edu.au /95206/groceries/>.


(Madden 2012)

Madden, X.V. 2012, ‘Lecture 6: The life cycle of a plastic bottle’, UTS Online Subject 77709, PowerPoint presentation, UTS, Sydney, viewed 22 March 2012, <www.online.uts.edu.au/77709/lecture_6/>.


(Khan 2009)

Khan, K.L. 2009, ‘My take on this whole genetic engineering debate is that monkeys deserve bionic hearing as much as we do’, UTS Online Subject 11187, forum post, UTS, Sydney, viewed 26 November 2009, <www.online.uts.edu.au/11187/forum/#879/>.

E-readings via the Library website or on UTS Online; articles from a Library Database

When you access readings such as journal articles or book chapters via the library website (eg as e-readings), UTS Online, or a Library Database, reference them as hard copy journal articles or book chapters, rather than webpages.

Referencing a previous assignment

Generally you shouldn't reference a previous assignment. If you are referring to facts or quotes that you've employed before you can use the references that you used in the previous assignment. Seeing as your previous assignment is not part of a published body of literature there is no way for a reader to trace this assignment should you reference it.

In class notes

Words spoken by lecturer

This is very similar to referencing a Personal communication. In the examples below Hansford, Smythe and Bright are the lecturers' names.

(J. Hansford 2012, lecture, 19 March) or for example: when talking about microbiology at UTS, J.B. Smythe (2014, lecture, 11 April) said that ...

Note the lecturer’s initials in front of the surname. You don’t need to put this type of reference in your reference list (becasue anyone who wants to see these notes will have to contact you directly). It's useful to put a bit of explanatory text in your document if you can, as in the second example above.

In class printed handout

(Bright 2011)

Bright, A.G. 2011, ‘Week 6 Handout: Ways in which machines can feel love’, UTS Subject 11187, lecture handout, UTS, Sydney.

Paper from a Conference

Referencing rules

Use this format for a single paper from a conference proceedings. To reference the whole conference proceedings as one work, treat it as an Edited Book instead. If an online conference paper has an equivalent printed version, reference it as if it was the print version.

In text

(Smith, Thomas & Piekarski 2008)

Note with in-text referencing, if there are four or more authors, list the first author followed by et al.

Reference list

Smith, R.T., Thomas, B.H. & Piekarski, W. 2008, 'Tech note: digital foam', IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2008, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, pp. 35-8.

No date

If you have no date for a reference, use n.d. (for 'no date') instead of the year. If you only have an approximate date, put c. (for 'circa', meaning around) in front of the year: eg (White n.d.) and (Beethoven c. 1813).

Unpublished paper

Sometimes a paper presented at a conference does not get published as part of the official conference proceedings. This is called an unpublished conference paper and has a slightly different format. There is no publisher, or page numbers, and the year now refers to the year the conference was held. You must now also include the conference location, and the days and month the conference was held.

In text

(Bowden & Fairley 1996)

Reference list

Bowden F.J. & Fairley, C.K. 1996, 'Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange', paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Paper viewed online

If there is no printed version, or if the online version is significantly different from the printed one, or there are no page numbers then use the format below. Publisher now refers to the producer or host of the online version. You must include the date you viewed the online paper, followed by the full URL within angle brackets.

In text

(Jakubowicz 2002)

Reference list

Jakubowicz, A. 2002, 'Race vilification and communal leadership', Beyond tolerance: national conference on racism, Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission, Sydney, viewed 2 September 2009, <http://www.humanrights.gov.au/racial_discrimination/conferences/beyond_tolerance/speeches/jakubowicz.html>.

Referencing rules

The key elements of a conference paper reference are:

  • author(s) of the paper, Year of publication of the proceedings
  • title of paper ('in single quotes'), conference name (in italics)
  • publisher of the proceedings (normally the organisation responsible for the conference)
  • place of publication. Include the state or country if there is a chance of confusion (eg Perth, WA) or if the place is not well known.
  • page numbers of the paper in the proceedings

Pamphlets and Zines

Not all Zines will have complete biographical information, but find what you can and use as much detail as possible. Note the words zine and pamphlet after the titles in the reference list examples.

In text

(Jones 2012), (NSW Health 2011), (University of Technology, Sydney 2009)

Reference list 

Jones, A. 2012, Paper Mountain, zine, no. 1, Sydney

NSW Health 2011, Welcome to the Emergency Department, pamphlet, NSW Health, Sydney, viewed 8 August 2012, <http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/resources/hospitals/going_to_hospital/pdf/ed_brochure.pdf>.

University of Technology, Sydney 2009, UTS: Staff safety and wellbeing at work: computer comfort, pamphlet, UTS, Sydney.

Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)

In text

(Australia, House of Representatives 2000), (New South Wales, Legislative Assembly 2012)

Reference list 

Australia, House of Representatives 2000, Debates, vol. HR103, pp. 2-9.

New South Wales, Legislative Assembly 2012, Debates, 3 May, pp. 11095-11100.

Traditionally you should include the volume number of the Debates, as in the first example above, but many online versions of Hansard do not mention the volume number. In such cases it is acceptable to put the day and month of the debate instead, as in the second example above. You do not need to put the URL even if you viewed the Hansard online. Page numbers of online Hansard can be found on the pdf version.

Personal communications

Personal communications can take a number of forms: conversations, emails, letters, interviews and so on. Records of these are normally kept in a secure location by the researcher and, for reasons of privacy, are not normally available for consultation except under special circumstances (eg by thesis examiners). For this reason it is not normally necessary to refer to personal communications in your reference list.

In the text of your document you should specify the year and the date (day month) when the personal communication took place. Note the use of initials in front of the surname.

Examples of in-text references:

M. Jones (1989, pers. comm., 6 May) believed that this was not relevant.

This was confirmed by email (R.J. Brown 2008, pers. comm., 3 July).

Press release or Media release

A press or media release can be in print or online. Note the words 'media release' or 'press release' after the title.

In text

(McDonald 1968), (Watersmith 2000)

Reference list

McDonald, J.E. 1968, Gallery expansion brings a new beginning, press release, 6 July, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.

Watersmith, C. 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, 1 March, BHP Limited, Melbourne, viewed 18 February 2010, <www.bhp.com.au/mediarelease18897>.

Reports (including ABS reports, reports from databases)

Reports are often in-house publications, usually have very focused subject matter, and may be only a few pages in length. Reports often have a report number. Report authors are often organisations. Often, the author of a report is also its publisher. Examples of reports are company annual reports, heritage reports, departmental reports, research group reports, reports from library databases, and some ABS publications. Reports are referenced in a very similar way to books. Because many reports are freely available online, and sometimes hard to get hold of in print, it is common to reference the online version.

If there is no specified author, use the name of the database as the author. If the place of publication is not stated, use the city where the publisher or organisational author is located (for example a report published by a state government department would be published in the state capital city). If you cannot find out where the publisher is located, leave out the place of publication.

Reports obtained through many of the library's online databases have a special format (see below), if their URLs are not publicly available. Note: this section was revised in April 2014.

Examples of reports available in print

In text

(Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999), (Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996)

Reference list

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999, Annual report 1998-99, DFAT, Canberra.

Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996, Report on public fundraising by charitable institutions, Report Number 75, Government Printer, Hobart.

Example of reports viewed online

If the report comes from a database that can only be accessed via the library's website, use the database name in place of the URL as in the examples for Passport, MarketLine and DatAnalysis below. This is because the URL is not publicly accessible for such databases. Only use the URL when the report is publicly accessible on the internet (as in the ABS example below). Indicate the type of report, if there is one, after the report title.

In text

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009), (Ducel, Fabry & Nicolle 2002), (Passport 2014), (MarketLine 2013), (DatAnalysis Premium 2014)

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Education and work, Australia, May 2009, cat. no. 6227.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 24 November 2009, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6227.0?OpenDocument>.

Ducel, G., Fabry, J. & Nicolle, L. 2002, Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: a practical guide, 2nd edn, WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH2002.12, World Health Organization, Geneva, viewed 10 April 2014, <http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/whocdscsreph200212.pdf>.

Passport 2014, Snack bars in Argentina, category briefing, viewed 5 March 2014, <Passport database>.

MarketLine 2013, Childrenswear in Australia, industry profile, viewed 9 April 2014, <MarketLine database>.

DatAnalysis Premium 2014, Qantas Airways Limited, company report, viewed 25 March 2014, <DatAnalysis Premium database>.


If the text of a speech is available online or in print, reference the webpage or printed material where the speech has been published. Similarly, if a speech has been posted on YouTube, reference the YouTube video.

If the speech was made as part of a parliamentary debate, use the Parliamentray Debate format (see above).

If the text of the speech you attended has not been published, and you are referencing your own notes from the speech, this is like a personal communication or your own notes from a lecture you attended. You only need in-text references: there is no need for an entry in your reference list because anyone who wants to see the notes will have to ask you directly. Note the use of initials in front of the surname in the examples below. It can be helpful to include some details about the speech in your document, as in the second example.

In text

(R.M. Jones 2012, speech, 3 May)

... in her speech about Karl Marx at the Sydney Opera House, J. Lopez (2014, speech, 3 January) said that ...

Standards and Patents

In text

(Cookson 1985), (Standards Australia 2008)

Reference List

Cookson, A.H. 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulation transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

Standards Australia 2008, Personal floatation devices - general requirements, AS 4658.1-2008, Standards Australia, Sydney.


In text

(Babayan 1993), (Kirk 2002)

Reference list

Babayan, K. 1993, 'The waning of the Qizilbash: the spiritual and temporal in seventeenth century Iran', PhD thesis, Princeton University, NJ.

Kirk, J. 2002, 'Theorising information use: managers and their work', PhD thesis, University of Technology, Sydney.

Example of an online thesis:

If you accessed the thesis online, if you wish you can add in the date you viewed it and the full URL:

Nassif, N.M. 1984, 'Theoretical aspects of the continuously varying schedule process for timber drying', M Eng. thesis, University of Technology, Sydney, viewed 23 November 2009, <http://hdl.handle.net/2100/263>.

Key elements of a thesis reference are:

  • the author of the thesis
  • year of publication
  • title of the thesis ('in single quotes')
  • type of thesis (eg PhD, MSc)
  • university where the thesis was undertaken
  • the city where the university is located. If the university name includes the city name (eg University of Technology, Sydney), you do not need to list the city separately. Include the state or country if there is a chance of confusion (eg University of Newcastle, NSW) or if the city is not well known.


You only need reference the treaty if you are quoting from it. If another document mentions the treaty, reference that document instead.

Only include the entered into force date if this date is different to the date the treaty was made open for signature.

In text

(Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands 1921)

Reference List

Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands 1921, 9 LNTS 211, opened for signature 20 October 1921, entered into force 6 April 1922.

TV or radio program

In text

(Canberra firestorm 2003), (PM 2004)

Reference list

Canberra firestorm 2003, television program, Catalyst, ABC TV, Sydney, 3 March.

PM 2004, radio program, ABC Radio 702AM, Sydney, 2 June.

Key elements of a television or radio broadcast are:

  • title of the broadcast (in italics)
  • year of broadcast
  • format (use television program or radio program)
  • series title (if appropriate)
  • television or radio station name
  • location of the station
  • broadcast date (day month)

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