UTS Library

Other Sources

We have compiled a list of addiitional sources here. If you can't find the source you are trying to reference within this list or anywhere else within our referencing guide, please contact us via the Ask a Librarian page.

Cochrane Reviews

Cochrane systematic reviews are usually sourced from the Library’s Wiley online databases or can be sourced from Cochrane Library online. For referencing purposes we recommend you use Wiley online database to view the key reference elements.

The information you need to gather to reference Cochrane systematic reviews includes:

    • author(s)
    • year (assessed as up to date)
    • title
    • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (in italics)
    • issue number (located after opening How to Cite link within the Wiley online database)
    • date you viewed the report
    • URL

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Bellemare et al. 2006)

Reference list

Bellemare, S., Wiebe, N., Russell, K.F., Klassen, T.P. & Craig, W.R. 2006, 'Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration to gastroenteritis in children', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, viewed 31 August 2011, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004390.pub2/abstract>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Datasets

Datasets are files of data associated with a piece of research. In the past, research papers have been published without the accompanying data. Recent practice and improved online storage and access has enabled researchers to make their data available to other researchers online, and indeed the trend is for this to become standard practice. Datasets are normally stored in online data repositories. The information you need to reference a dataset is: 

  • author/s
  • year
  • title of the dataset (in 'single quotes')
  • name of data repository (in italics)
  • the words: electronic data set
  • the word: viewed, followed by the date that you viewed the dataset as: day month year
  • URL (in <angle brackets>)

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the example below:

In text

Premolar length in museum specimins of Otocolobus manul ranges from 10.2mm to 11.9mm (Meachen-Samuels & Van Valkenburgh 2009).

Raw data from a dataset should not be quoted directly but should instead be summarised.

Reference list

Meachen-Samuels, J. & Van Valkenburg, B. 2009, 'Data from: Craniodental indicators of prey size preference in the Felidae', Dryad Digital Repository, electronic data set, viewed 18 April 2015, <http://datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.6h722>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias are referenced like a book with no author. If in print (or if online but the same as the print) you only need an in-text reference for a dictionary reference. You don't need to put print dictionaries or print encyclopedias in your reference list.

For an online-only dictionary or encyclopedia, because you need to include information about the web address, reference like an online book with no author, and include in your reference list. The web address should be the main website address, not the address of the particular entry you looked up (see examples below). As with an online book, if the place of publication is not given you can leave it out.

If quoting from an encyclopedia, use page numbers if in print; if online use the method for quoting from an online book. You don't need to put page numbers if quoting from a dictionary (because it's obvious where the quote comes from).

The information you need to gather to reference a Dictionary or Encyclopedia includes:

  • title
  • year
  • publisher (if online and different from print version)
  • place of publication (if online and different from print version)
  • date you viewed the source (if online and different from print version)
  • URL (if online and different from print version)

Remember, even if you viewed a dictionary or encyclopedia online, if what you viewed is just an online version of a print dictionary or encyclopedia then you should reference it as if you used the print version: which means you don't need an entry in the bibliography.

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

Paper dictionary: Macquarie dictionary defines spruik as 'to harangue or address a meeting' (Macquarie Dictionary 2012).

Online dictionary: Collins dictionary defines the action to wimple as 'to cover with or put a wimple on' (Collins Dictionary 2012).

Paper Encyclopedia: Lemons are described as 'yellowy soury things that grow on trees' (Wiseman's Encyclopedia 2010, p. 767).

Online Encyclopedia: Oranges are described as 'round tangy things that grow on trees' (Acumen Encyclopedia 2007).

Reference list

[First example does not appear in the reference list because it's a print dictionary]

Collins Dictionary 2012, HarperCollins, London, viewed 15 November 2012, <http://www.collinsdictionary.com/>.

[Third example does not appear in the reference list because it's a print encyclopedia]

Acumen Encyclopedia 2007, Acumen Publishing, viewed 15 November 2012, <http://www.acumenencyc.com/>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Golden Target Awards

The information you need to gather to reference Golden Target Award includes:

  • entrant company (the company that prepared the campaign)
  • year
  • title (in single quotes because they are not formally published)
  • publisher: Public Relations Institute of Australia
  • place of publication: Sydney
  • date you viewed the source (if online)
  • URL (if online)

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(ACT Government 2006) or (Weber Shandwick Australia 2009) or (Ergon Energy 2012)

Reference list

ACT Government 2006, 'Live in Canberra campaign', Golden Target Award entry, Public Relations Institute of Australia, Sydney.

Weber Shandwick 2009, 'Bidwill Blitz Build', Golden Target Award entry, Public Relations Institute of Australia, Sydney.

Ergon Energy 2012, 'Townsville Queensland solar city', Golden Target Award entry, Public Relations Institute of Australia, Sydney, viewed 2 February 2015, <http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/5892>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Graphs, Figures and Tables

When using a graph, figure or table from some source, reference that source both in your text and in the reference list. Place an in-text reference after the caption of the graph, figure or table. If the original source has many pages, it is a good idea to include a page number in the in-text reference to indicate the page where the graph, figure or table was found. Page numbers are not needed if the source has only a few pages.

If you made a table or graph with data that you found in several sources, include all these sources in the in-text reference after the caption (with page numbers if appropriate), and include all the sources in your reference list.

The format of the caption is:

  • for a graph or figure: the word Figure followed by a number, a colon, a brief description, and (if required) an in-text reference. The caption is placed below the graph or figure.
  • for a table: the word Table followed by a number, a colon, a brief description, and (if required) an in-text reference. The caption is placed above the table.

So you might have a caption underneath a figure such as:
Figure 4: The Sydney Harbour Bridge (Smith 2015, p. 76).

In your text, you might say: We can see in Figure 4 one of the impressive bridges in Sydney.

And in your reference list, you might have:
Smith, K. 2015, Famous bridges of Australia, Random House, Melbourne.

In the above example, the figure was found on page 76 of the book by Smith.

Similarly you might have a caption above a table such as:
Table 3: Tide levels in Sydney 1999-2012 (Bureau of Meteorology 2005, p. 88-90; Bureau of Meteorology 2010; Williamson 2013)

In your text you might say: Table 3 shows that tides in Sydney have shown great variation over recent years.

And in your reference list you might have:
Bureau of Meteorology 2005, NSW Tides 1999-2004, AGPS, Canberra.
Bureau of Meteorology 2010, NSW Tides 2005-2010, viewed 16 May 2016, <www.bom.gov.au/tides2005/sydney/>.
Williamson, J.L. 2013, 'Recent tide variations in Sydney', Journal of Coastal Change, vol. 7, issue 11, pp. 36-40.

In the above example, the table used data from three sources. Page numbers were used in the in-text citation when the data came from a book, but were not needed in the in-text citation when the data came from a webpage or a short journal article.

Joanna Briggs Institute documents

Documents from the Joanna Briggs Insititute for Evidence Based Practice database come in several different formats, which are referenced slightly differently. The examples below show how to reference: evidence summaries, systematic reviews, systematic review protocols, recommended practices, and best practice information sheets.

The information you need to gather to reference a Joanna Briggs Institute Document includes:

  • authors
  • year
  • title (in single quotes)
  • type of source
  • date you viewed the source
  • reference to the database

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Fong 2013), (Pearson & Chalmers 2004), (Whitelaw & Wilson 2007), (Joanna Briggs Institute 2013), (Joanna Briggs Institute 2008)

Reference list

Fong, E. 2013, 'Hand hygiene: alcohol-based solutions', evidence summary, viewed 30 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Insititute EBP database>.

Pearson, A. & Chalmers, J. 2004, 'Oral hygiene care for adults with dementia in residential aged care facilities', systematic review, viewed 30 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Insititute EBP database>.

Whitelaw, J. & Wilson, A. 2007, 'Barriers to compliance with effective hand hygiene practices by neonatal health care workers: a systematic review', systematic review protocol, viewed 29 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Insititute EBP database>.

Joanna Briggs Institute 2013, 'Hygiene management', recommended practice, viewed 12 March 2014, <Joanna Briggs Insititute EBP database>.

Joanna Briggs Institute 2008, 'Management of peripheral intravascular devices', Best Practice: evidence-based information sheets for health professionals, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1-4, viewed 30 April 2014, <Joanna Briggs Insititute EBP database>.

The name of the database appears instead of a URL because these documents come from a subscription database that is not accessible except via the library. If a document does not have an author, as in the last two examples, use Joanna Briggs Institute as the author. The last example is for a best practice information sheet.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Lecture notes, PowerPoint, or something listed in UTS Online

Referencing a PowerPoint slide, lecture notes or subject documents found on the web (eg UTS Online) is similar to referencing a website. So you need to include the date you viewed it, and the URL.

If you are referencing an article or book chapter contained within course material, reference it as the original hard copy article or book chapter, even if the course material is online.

If you are referencing lecture notes that you took in class, see the In class notes section below.

The information you need to gather to reference material on UTS Online includes:

  • author
  • year
  • title (in single quotes)
  • subject number (in italics)
  • type of source
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • date you viewed the source
  • URL

Once you have collected the information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

Lecture Notes

(Allen 2012)

Allen, B. 2012, 'Things you need to know about groceries', UTS Online Subject 95206, lecture notes, UTS, Sydney, viewed 28 March 2012, <www.online.uts.edu.au /95206/groceries/>.

PowerPoint

(Madden 2012)

Madden, X.V. 2012, 'Lecture 6: The life cycle of a plastic bottle', UTS Online Subject 77709, PowerPoint presentation, UTS, Sydney, viewed 22 March 2012, <www.online.uts.edu.au/77709/lecture_6/>.

Forum

(Khan 2009)

Khan, K.L. 2009, 'My take on this whole genetic engineering debate is that monkeys deserve bionic hearing as much as we do', UTS Online Subject 11187, forum post, UTS, Sydney, viewed 26 November 2009, <www.online.uts.edu.au/11187/forum/#879/>.

E-readings via the Library website or on UTS Online; articles from a Library Database

When you access readings such as journal articles or book chapters via the library website (eg as e-readings), UTS Online, or a Library Database, reference them as hard copy journal articles or book chapters, rather than webpages.

Referencing a previous assignment

You shouldn't reference a previous assignment. If you are referring to facts or quotes that you've employed before, you should use the references that you used in the previous assignment. This is because there is no way for a reader to trace your previous assignment.

In class notes

Words spoken by lecturer

This is very similar to referencing a personal communication. In the examples below Hansford, Smythe and Bright are the lecturers' names.

Note the lecturer’s initials in front of the surname. You don’t need to put this type of reference in your reference list (becasue anyone who wants to see these notes will have to contact you directly). It's useful to put a bit of explanatory text in your document if you can, as in the second example below.

(J. Hansford 2012, lecture, 11 April)

...when talking about microbiology at UTS, J.B. Smythe (2014, lecture, 11 April) said that ...

In class printed handout

(Bright 2011)

Bright, A.G. 2011, 'Week 6 Handout: Ways in which machines can feel love’, UTS Subject 11187, lecture handout, UTS, Sydney.

Quote from a work citing another author

A PowerPoint slide or lecture notes may sometimes quote a work from another author. You can use such a quote, and note the original author of the quote in the text of your assignment, but the in-text citation should be to the author of the PowerPoint slide or lecture notes where you actually read the quote. The Book and Journal Article sections of this guide have some examples of what this might look like.

In your reference list you should have the full reference for the PowerPoint slide or lecture notes that cited the 'other' author. You don't need the 'other' author in your reference list because you did not actually use their work directly.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Paper from a Conference

Use this format for a single paper from a conference proceedings. To reference the whole conference proceedings as one work, treat it as an Edited Book instead. If an online conference paper has an equivalent printed version, reference it as if it was the print version.

The information you need to gather to reference a paper from a conference includes:

  • author(s) of the paper,
  • year of publication of the proceedings
  • title of paper ('in single quotes')
  • conference name (in italics)
  • publisher of the proceedings (normally the organisation responsible for the conference)
  • place of publication. Include the state or country if there is a chance of confusion (eg Perth, WA) or if the place is not well known.
  • page numbers of the paper in the proceedings

Once you have collected the information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below.

In text

(Smith, Thomas & Piekarski 2008)

Note with in-text referencing, if there are four or more authors, list the first author followed by et al.

Reference list

Smith, R.T., Thomas, B.H. & Piekarski, W. 2008, 'Tech note: digital foam', IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2008, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, pp. 35-8.

Unpublished paper

Sometimes a paper presented at a conference does not get published as part of the official conference proceedings. This is called an unpublished conference paper and has a slightly different format. There is no publisher, or page numbers, and the year now refers to the year the conference was held. You must now also include the conference location, and the days and month the conference was held.

In text

(Bowden & Fairley 1996)

Reference list

Bowden F.J. & Fairley, C.K. 1996, 'Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange', paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Paper viewed online

If there is no printed version, or if the online version is significantly different from the printed one, or there are no page numbers then use the format below. Publisher now refers to the producer or host of the online version. You must include the date you viewed the online paper, followed by the full URL within angle brackets.

In text

(Jakubowicz 2002)

Reference list

Jakubowicz, A. 2002, 'Race vilification and communal leadership', Beyond tolerance: national conference on racism, Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission, Sydney, viewed 2 September 2009, <http://www.humanrights.gov.au/racial_discrimination/conferences/beyond_tolerance/speeches/jakubowicz.html>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Monument

The information you need to gather to reference a pamphlet or zine includes:

  • Author (=creator of the monument, or the body or person that was responsible)
  • year
  • description (in italics; if no description is given, make up a short description of what the monument or plaque is commemorating)
  • format (=monument or plaque)
  • Location

In text

(Sydney Markets Bell Tower 1911), (Taylor 1910)

Reference list 

Sydney Markets Bell Tower 1911, monument, Haymarket, NSW.

Taylor, A. 1910, Commemoration of laying of first stone of Bell Tower, plaque, Haymarket, NSW.

Pamphlets and Zines

The information you need to gather to reference a pamphlet or zine includes:

  • author
  • year
  • title (in italics)
  • type of source
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • date you viewed the source
  • URL

(Not all zines will have complete information, but find what you can and use as much detail as possible).

Once you have collected the information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Jones 2012), (NSW Health 2011), (University of Technology Sydney 2009),

Reference list 

Jones, A. 2012, Paper mountain, zine, no. 1, Sydney.

NSW Health 2011, Welcome to the emergency department, pamphlet, NSW Health, Sydney, viewed 8 August 2012, <http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/resources/hospitals/going_to_hospital/pdf/ed_brochure.pdf>.

University of Technology Sydney 2009, UTS: Staff safety and wellbeing at work: computer comfort, pamphlet, UTS, Sydney.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Personal communications

Personal communications can take a number of forms: conversations, emails, letters, interviews and so on. Records of these are normally kept in a secure location by the researcher and, for reasons of privacy, are not normally available for consultation except under special circumstances (eg by thesis examiners). For this reason it is not normally necessary to refer to personal communications in your reference list.

In the text of your document you should specify the year and the date (day month) when the personal communication took place. Note the use of initials in front of the surname.

In text

M. Jones (1989, pers. comm., 6 May) believed that this was not relevant.

This was confirmed by email (R.J. Brown 2008, pers. comm., 3 July).

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Play or Concert performance

Note: To reference the text of a play or the written version of a piece of music use the book or website template as required. 

The information you need to gather to reference a play or concert performance includes:

  • Title of Play/ Music (in italics)
  • Year of performance
  • format (play/ concert)
  • written/ composed by Writer/ Composer
  • performed by Theatre Company/ Orchestra
  • directed by Director/ conducted by Conductor (if this is important)
  • Date of performance (Day Month, if relevant)
  • Venue
  • Location of Venue (if not obvious from the name of the venue).

In text

(Cat on a hot tin roof 2013), (Mass in B minor 2010)

Reference List

Cat on a hot tin roof 2013, play, written by T. Williams, performed by the Sydney Theatre Company, 30 March, Sydney Opera House.

Mass in B Minor 2010, concert, composed by J.S. Bach, performed by the London Bach Choir, conducted by David Hill, 22 June, Royal Festival Hall, London.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Poem

If the poem is well known and widely available, refer to the poem’s author and title (in italics) in the text but there is no need to include an entry in the reference list. If the poem is not well known, mention its author and title in the text but your in-text reference should be to the author and title (in italics) of the book or website where you found the poem (ie not to the author and title of the poem). Reference that book or website in your reference list.

In text

... in Milton’s Paradise lost, stanza 73, …

[no entry in reference list]

In text

… in Herrick’s To the sour reader (Allison & Barrows 1983, p. 243) …

reference to the book in the reference list:

Allison, A. & Barrows, H. (eds) 1983, Norton anthology of poetry, W.W. Norton & Co., N.Y.

In text

… in Herrick’s To the sour reader (Poetry Cat n.d.) …

reference to the website in the reference list:

Poetry Cat n.d., viewed 13 May 2016, <http://www.poetrycat.com/robert-herrick/to-the-sour-reader>.

Poster

NOTE: Poster means a poster on a wall; not a poster paper from a conference which is covered by paper presented at a conference.

The information you need to gather to reference a press or media release includes:

  • Author 
  • Year (use n.d if no year)
  • Poster title (In italics; use poster text if necessary; if no title or text make up a short description and use that instead)
  • Format (=poster)
  • Publisher (leave out if same as author)
  • Location (ie where you saw the poster)
  • Dimensions (if relevant).
    (Leave out anything that is not listed on the poster)

In text

(Chart Studio 1997), (Lichtenstein 1976), (Hopeless n.d.), (Palm Sunday Rally 2016)

Reference list 

Chart Studio 1997, Fruit, poster, UTS Library, Haymarket, NSW, 80cm x 50cm.

Lichtenstein, R. 1976, America: the third century, poster, Mobil Oil Corporation, Museum für Kunst und Gewerb, Hamburg, Germany, 89cm x 60cm.

Hopeless (n.d.), poster, Surry Hills, NSW, 70cm x 40cm.

Palm Sunday Rally 2016, poster, Carlton, Vic.

 

Press release or Media release

The information you need to gather to reference a press or media release includes:

  • author
  • year
  • title (in italics)
  • type of source
  • date (day and month)
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • date you viewed the source (if online)
  • URL (if online)

Once you have collected the information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

A press or media release can be in print or online. Note the words 'media release' or 'press release' after the title.

In text

(McDonald 1968), (Watersmith 2000)

Reference list

McDonald, J.E. 1968, Gallery expansion brings a new beginning, press release, 6 July, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.

Watersmith, C. 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, 1 March, BHP Limited, Melbourne, viewed 18 February 2010, < www.bhp.com.au/mediarelease18897>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Reports (including ABS reports, reports from databases)

Reports are referenced in a very similar way to books. Because many reports are freely available online, and sometimes hard to get hold of in print, it is common to reference the online version.

Report authors are often organisations. Often, the author of a report is also its publisher. Examples of reports are company annual reports, heritage reports, departmental reports, research group reports, reports from library databases, and some ABS publications. If the place of publication is not stated, use the city where the publisher or organisational author is located (for example a report published by a state government department would be published in the state capital city). If you cannot find out where the publisher is located, leave out the place of publication. Reports often have a report number.

Reports obtained through many of the library's online databases have a special format (see below), if their URLs are not publicly available.

The information you need to gather to reference a report includes:

  • author
  • year
  • title (in italics)
  • type of source
  • date (day and month)
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • report number (if available)
  • date you viewed the source (if online)
  • URL (if online)

Examples of reports available in print

In text

(Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999), (Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996)

Reference list

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999, Annual report 1998-99, DFAT, Canberra.

Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996, Report on public fundraising by charitable institutions, report number 75, Government Printer, Hobart.

Example of reports viewed online

If the report comes from a database that can only be accessed via the library's website, use the database name in place of the URL as in the examples for Passport, MarketLine and DatAnalysis below. This is because the URL is not publicly accessible for such databases. Only use the URL when the report is publicly accessible on the internet (as in the ABS example below). Indicate the type of report, if there is one, after the report title.

In text

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009), (Ducel, Fabry & Nicolle 2002), (Passport 2014), (MarketLine 2013), (DatAnalysis Premium 2014),

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Education and work, Australia, May 2009, cat. no. 6227.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 24 November 2009, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6227.0?OpenDocument>.

Ducel, G., Fabry, J. & Nicolle, L. 2002, Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: a practical guide, WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH2002.12, World Health Organization, Geneva, viewed 10 April 2014, <http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/whocdscsreph200212.pdf>.

Passport 2014, Snack bars in Argentina, category briefing, viewed 5 March 2014, <Passport database>.

MarketLine 2013, Childrenswear in Australia, industry profile, viewed 9 April 2014, <MarketLine database>.

DatAnalysis Premium 2014, Qantas Airways Limited, company report, viewed 25 March 2014, <DatAnalysis Premium database>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Slogan

Refer to the slogan (in italics) in text with as much context as you can. No need to include an entry in the reference list.

Song (performance)

To reference the song as written (as opposed to a performance), use Book reference type.

The information you need to gather to reference a song performance includes:

  • Title of song (in italics) 
  • Year of performance
  • performed by singer
  • composed by composer (if relevant)
  • arranged by arranger (if relevant)
  • lyrics by writer (if relevant)
  • format (YouTube, DVD etc)
  • Date of performance (Day Month, if relevant)
  • Venue (if relevant)
  • Location of venue (if relevant)
  • viewed Date (if relevant)
  • URL (if relevant, in angle brackets).

In text

(Fly me to the moon 1964)

Reference List

Fly me to the moon 1964, performed by F. Sinatra, composed by B. Howard, arranged by Q. Jones, YouTube, viewed 13 May 2016, <https://youtu.be/EX1gM7bXfVU>.


Speeches

If the text of a speech is available online or in print, reference the webpage or printed material where the speech has been published. Similarly, if a speech has been posted on YouTube, reference the YouTube video.

If the speech was made as part of a parliamentary debate, use the Parliamentray Debate format (see Legal Material).

If the text of the speech has not been published, and you are referencing your own notes from the speech, this is like a personal communication or your own notes from a lecture you attended. You only need an in-text references, there is no need for an entry in your reference list because anyone who wants to see the notes will have to ask you directly. Note the use of initials in front of the surname in the examples below. It can be helpful to include some details about the speech in your document, as in the second example.

In text

(R.M. Jones 2012, speech, 3 May)

... in her speech about Karl Marx at the Sydney Opera House, J. Lopez (2014, speech, 3 January) said that ...

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Standards and Patents

The information you need to gather to reference a standard or patent includes:

  • author
  • year
  • title (in italics)
  • patent or standard number
  • publisher
  • place of publication

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Cookson 1985), (Standards Australia 2008)

Reference List

Cookson, A.H. 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulation transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

Standards Australia 2008, Personal flotation devices - general requirements, AS 4758.1-2008, Standards Australia, Sydney.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

Thesis

The information you need to gather to reference a thesis includes:

  • the author of the thesis
  • year of publication
  • title of the thesis ('in single quotes')
  • type of thesis (eg PhD, MSc)
  • university where the thesis was completed
  • the city where the university is located. If the university name includes the city name (eg University of Technology Sydney), you do not need to list the city separately. Include the state or country if there is a chance of confusion (eg University of Newcastle, NSW) or if the city is not well known.

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below.

In text

(Babayan 1993), (Kirk 2002)

Reference list

Babayan, K. 1993, 'The waning of the Qizilbash: the spiritual and temporal in seventeenth century Iran', PhD thesis, Princeton University, NJ.

Kirk, J. 2002, 'Theorising information use: managers and their work', PhD thesis, University of Technology Sydney.

Example of an online thesis:

If you accessed the thesis online, you should add in the date you viewed it and the full URL:

Nassif, N.M. 1984, 'Theoretical aspects of the continuously varying schedule process for timber drying', M Eng. thesis, University of Technology Sydney, viewed 23 November 2009, <http://hdl.handle.net/2100/263>.

If you are having trouble finding a date for the source, or you aren’t sure how to reference a source with more than one author, please view our More Information page.

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