UTS Library

Sound, Film and Image

If you can't find the source you are trying to reference within this list or anywhere else within our referencing guide, please contact us via the Ask a Librarian page.

Image

In text

In-text references use the name of the creator of the original artwork, or when this is not known, the title of the artwork (in italics), plus the year the artwork was created. This might be a range of years if the artwork was created over several years or if only a time period is known. You can also use c. (short for circa, meaning 'around' in Latin) in front of the year to indicate an approximate year. Use n.d. (short for 'no date') when the year is unknown.

(Van Gogh 1890), (Rodin 1884-89), (Brodhead Public Library c. 1900), (Sculpture by the sea - Elephant  2009), (Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928), (Degas c. 1874), (Emperor Claudius 40-50), (Gaunt 1970, p. 17), (Rodin 1886), (Olley 2000)

Reference list

The reference list details depend on where the image was found. There are a number of different formats, see the examples below.

Website image:

If the image is on a hosted site such as Google Cultural Institute or Flickr, place the site name after the title. If the name of the photographer or the organisation that posted the image is known this can be indicated after the title as in the examples below. 

Van Gogh, V.  1890,  Undergrowth with two figures, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 4 March 2014, <http://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/undergrowth-with-two-figures/PgGaehoXTiERQQ?projectId=art-project>.

Rodin, A. 1884-89, Burghers of Calais, photographed by J. Howe, Boston College Fine Arts Department, viewed 3 April 2014, < <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/rodin/rodin_burghers.html>.

Brodhead Public Library c. 1900, Wisconsin Historical Images, Flickr, viewed 8 December 2013, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/whsimages/4566401462>.

Sculpture by the sea - Elephant 2009, photographed by A. Wain, Flickr, viewed 27 February 2014, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexwain/4091011517/>.

Database image

When the image is from a commercial database (for example a database that is only accessible via the UTS Library website). Note that the URL is replaced by the name of the database plus any identifying cataloguing numbers. 

Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928, Yardley's old English lavender soap, viewed 8 December 2010, <Ad*Access database, item: BH1950>.

Degas, E. c. 1874, The rehearsal of the ballet onstage, viewed 4 March 2014, <ARTstor database, ID number: 594>.

Emperor Claudius 40-50, photographed by I. Geske, viewed 5 March 2014, <ARTstor database, accession number: 1965.10>.

Printed Image

When the image is in a printed source, reference the source and indicate where the image is within the source by a page number in the in-text reference (see the in-text example for Gaunt above):

Gaunt, W. 1970, The impressionists, Thames & Hudson, London. 

Original Artwork

If you are referencing the original artwork itself (not an image created by someone else), the format is: Artist Year, Title, Type of Work, Museum or Gallery, City. You should use this format if you are using your own image of an original artwork. If an artwork is in a private collection you do not need the city.

Rodin, A. 1886, The lovers, sculpture, Rodin Museum, Paris.

Olley, M. 2000, Proteas in the kitchen, painting, private collection.

If you are using an image of your own that is not an image of someone else's work, for example a photograph you took of a street scene or of an artwork you created, you do not have to reference it. Just make it clear in the text that the image is yours.

Images of Indigenous Artworks, Designs or Objects

References to Indigenous artworks, designs, objects, or images, need to note the Nation or Country and/or language group of the Indigenous person or community who created them, and where the people or Country are located. Sometimes this is not known, in which case we use "unrecorded location". This information is placed directly after the title. If the creator is not known we use "Unrecorded" in place of the creator. If there is no title, we use "Untitled". If there is no date, we use "n.d.". If the year is only known approximately we write "c." in front of the year, or use a range of years.

The references below would be referenced in text as follows: (McRae 1899), (Yirawala c. 1965), (Unrecorded 1912-13), (Wilson 2003), (Unrecorded n.d.), (Unrecorded 1800/1940), (Unrecorded 1860/1940), (Tjanpitjinpa 2001), (Campbell Jr 1988), (Apuatimi n.d.)

McRae, T. 1899, Rutherglen corroboree, Kwat Kwat clan, Wahgunyah district, Northeast Victoria, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 27 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/rutherglen-corroboree/lgHwL9l0sN44-w>.

Yirawala c. 1965, Maratlaitj, mother of tribes, Kuninjku (Eastern Kunwinjku) people, Maningrida, Central Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 27 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/maralaitj-mother-of-the-tribes/ywFrMbZsuLSwBQ>.

Unrecorded 1912-13, Ancestor and snake, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 28 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/ancestor-and-snake/uwHcQPaRPH7dxw>.

Wilson, R. 2003, Syaw - fish net, Peppimenarti people, Fitzmaurice region, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 29 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/syaw---fish-net/HAHSLdJUi9eewQ>.

Unrecorded n.d., Baiame cave, Wonnarua people, Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia, photographed by R. Downie, Flickr, viewed 31 October 2016, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/robertdownie/23277332960/>.

Unrecorded 1800/1940, X-ray kangaroo, Maung language group, Wellington Range, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 30 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/x-ray-kangaroo/xAFZtDFTBF_fMA>.

Unrecorded 1860/1940, Solid white female figure, Maung language group, Wellington Range, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, rock painting, Djulirri, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia.

Tjanpitjinpa, R. 2001, Untitled, Pintupi people, Central and Western Desert, Northern Territory, Australia, painting, Art Gallery of NSW, Sydney.

Campbell Jr, R. 1988, Abo history (facts), Ngaku people, Kempsey, NSW, Australia, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Apuatimi, D. n.d., Bark painting, Tiwi people, Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

The last few examples are references to the actual artworks, viewed and possibly photographed in person. In these cases, we also add the type of artwork or object immediately after the location of the Country.

Graph, Figure or Table

When using a graph, figure or table from some source, reference that source both in your text and in the reference list. Place an in-text reference after the caption of the graph, figure or table. If the original source has many pages, it is a good idea to include a page number in the in-text reference to indicate the page where the graph, figure or table was found. Page numbers are not needed if the source has only a few pages.

If you made a table or graph with data that you found in several sources, include all these sources in the in-text reference after the caption (with page numbers if appropriate), and include all the sources in your reference list.

The format of the caption is:

  • for a graph or figure: the word Figure followed by a number, a colon, a brief description, and (if required) an in-text reference. The caption is placed belowthe graph or figure.
  • for a table: the word Table followed by a number, a colon, a brief description, and (if required) an in-text reference. The caption is placed above the table.

So you might have a caption underneath a figure such as:
Figure 4: The Sydney Harbour Bridge (Smith 2015, p. 76).

In your text, you might say: We can see in Figure 4 one of the impressive bridges in Sydney.

And in your reference list, you might have:
Smith, K. 2015, Famous bridges of Australia, Random House, Melbourne.

In the above example, the figure was found on page 76 of the book by Smith.

Similarly you might have a caption above a table such as:
Table 3: Tide levels in Sydney 1999-2012 (Bureau of Meteorology 2005, p. 88-90; Bureau of Meteorology 2010; Williamson 2013)

In your text you might say: Table 3 shows that tides in Sydney have shown great variation over recent years.

And in your reference list you might have:
Bureau of Meteorology 2005, NSW Tides 1999-2004, AGPS, Canberra.
Bureau of Meteorology 2010, NSW Tides 2005-2010, viewed 16 May 2016, <www.bom.gov.au/tides2005/sydney/>.
Williamson, J.L. 2013, 'Recent tide variations in Sydney', Journal of Coastal Change, vol. 7, issue 11, pp. 36-40.

In the above example, the table used data from three sources. Page numbers were used in the in-text citation when the data came from a book, but were not needed in the in-text citation when the data came from a webpage or a short journal article.

YouTube

The information you need to gather to reference a YouTube clip includes:

    • author(s)
    • year (it was uploaded)
    • title (in italics)
    • reference to type of source (video recording)
    • hosting site (YouTube)
    • date you viewed the video
    • URL

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(UTS Library 2009)

If you need to reference a quote in a YouTube video, use the start time of the quote within the video, eg (UTS Library 2009, 0:54)

Reference list

UTS Library 2009, It's the UTS Library with Mr Hank, video recording, YouTube, viewed 21 September 2009, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYP_hZmcRgg>.

Podcast

The information you need to gather to reference a Podcast includes:

    • author(s)
    • year (it was uploaded)
    • title (in italics)
    • reference to type of source (video or audio recording)
    • program name
    • station name
    • station location
    • broadcast date
    • date you viewed the video
    • URL

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Crawford 2009) or (Small town salvation 2009)

Reference list

Crawford, M. 2009, Shop class as soulcraft, audio podcast, Future Tense, Radio National, ABC Radio, Sydney, 5 November, viewed 18 November 2009, <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/futuretense/stories/2009/2728755.htm>.

Small town salvation 2009, video podcast, Compass, ABC TV, Sydney, 1 November, viewed 18 November 2009, <http://www.abc.net.au/compass/s2707046.htm>.

Film, Video and Audiovisual

The information you need to gather to reference a film, video or audiovisual source includes:

    • title (in italics)
    • year of publication or release
    • format (use motion picture for films; use video recording, CD-ROM, DVD, audio casette, slide, or microform etc for other audiovisual material)
    • distributor (for films) or publisher
    • place of recording or publication (for audiovisual material)

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Muriel’s wedding 1994)

Reference list

Muriel’s wedding 1994, motion picture, Roadshow Entertainment, Sydney.

The Edge of the possible 1998, DVD, Ronin Films, Canberra.

Although you are likely to view most feature films (ie movies) as DVDs you should still reference feature films with the format 'motion picture' rather than 'DVD'.

TV and Radio Programs

The information you need to gather to reference a film, video or audiovisual souce includes:

    • title of the broadcast (in italics)
    • year of broadcast
    • format (use television program or radio program)
    • series title (if appropriate)
    • television or radio station name
    • location of the station
    • broadcast date (day month)

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Canberra firestorm 2003), (PM 2004)

Reference list

Canberra firestorm 2003, television program, Catalyst, ABC TV, Sydney, 3 March.

PM  2004, radio program, ABC Radio 702AM, Sydney, 25 October.

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