UTS Library

Sound, Film and Image

This page covers images, web, films, and sound recordings, found in both physical form and on the web

If you can't find the source you are trying to reference within this list or anywhere else within our referencing guide, please contact us via the Ask a Librarian page.

Image

Website Image:

The elements you need to reference an image found on the web are:

  • Author
  • Year
  • Title of image (in italics)
  • Publisher (eg: the name of the website)
  • Viewed date expressed as day month year (see examples below)
  • The URL in angle brackets.

In text:

(Gardening Viral 2016)

(Rapier 2017)

Reference List:

Gardening Viral 2016, 50 ways of creating an enchanting succulent garden in your own backyard, Pinterest, viewed 20 October 2017, < https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/AbXoYTjkr-Ng0ttjRIWlOdmXApMdQeZwZDQ7O48iOLKZ5kwcw0M4bNE/>.

Rapier, R. 2017, CO2 emissions 1965 – 2011, Energy Trends Insider, viewed 20 October 2017, < http://www.energytrendsinsider.com/2012/07/02/global-carbon-dioxide-emissions-facts-and-figures/>.

If your image has no title you can provide it one. Eg:

In text

(Fortune 500 2017)

Reference List

Fortune 500 2017, Coca cola bottles in palettes, viewed 20 October 2017, < http://fortune.com/fortune500/coca-cola/>.

Please note: if your image is of a creative work, such as a painting, photograph, building or a logo, use the year that the work was created, rather than the date the image was uploaded or the date the web page was last updated:

In text

(Van Gogh 1890)

(Sculpture by the sea - Elephant  2009)

If the artwork was created over several years you can deal with that like this:

(Rodin 1884-89)

If a time period is unknown you can also use c. (short for circa, meaning 'around' in Latin) in front of the year to indicate an approximate year.

(Brodhead Public Library c. 1900)

Use n.d. (short for 'no date') when the year is unknown.

Reference List

Brodhead Public Library c. 1900, Wisconsin Historical Images, Flickr, viewed 8 December 2013, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/whsimages/4566401462>.

  • If the name of the photographer or the organisation that posted the image is known this can be indicated after the title as in the Rodin and Sculpture by the Sea examples below.

Rodin, A. 1884-89, Burghers of Calais, photographed by J. Howe, Boston College Fine Arts Department, viewed 3 April 2014, < <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/rodin/rodin_burghers.html>.

Sculpture by the sea - Elephant 2009, photographed by A. Wain, Flickr, viewed 27 February 2014, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexwain/4091011517/>.

Van Gogh, V.  1890, Undergrowth with two figures, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 4 March 2014, <http://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/undergrowth-with-two-figures/PgGaehoXTiERQQ?projectId=art-project>.

Database Image

Use the database image template when the image is from a commercial database (for example a database that is only accessible via the UTS Library website). Note that the URL is replaced by the name of the database plus any identifying cataloguing numbers. 

In text:

(Degas c. 1874)
(Emperor Claudius 40-50)
(Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928)

Reference List:

Degas, E. c. 1874, The rehearsal of the ballet onstage, viewed 4 March 2014, <ARTstor database, ID number: 594>.

Emperor Claudius 40-50, photographed by I. Geske, viewed 5 March 2014, <ARTstor database, accession number: 1965.10>.

Yardley & Co., Ltd. 1928, Yardley's old English lavender soap, viewed 8 December 2010, <Ad*Access database, item: BH1950>.

Printed Image

When the image is in a printed source like a book, the year refers to the year the book was written and the author refers to the author of the book.

Indicate where the image is within the source by a page number in the in-text reference (see the in-text example for Gaunt below):

In text:

(Gaunt 1970, p. 17)

Reference List:

Gaunt, W. 1970, The impressionists, Thames & Hudson, London. 

Original Artwork

If you are referencing the original artwork itself as seen in a gallery or museum, or you are using your own image of an original artwork, the format is:

Artist Year, Title, Type of Work, Museum or Gallery, City.
* If an artwork is in a private collection you do not need the city.

In text

(Rodin 1886)

(Olley 2000)

Reference List

Rodin, A. 1886, The lovers, sculpture, Rodin Museum, Paris.

Olley, M. 2000, Proteas in the kitchen, painting, private collection.

Images of Indigenous Artworks, Designs or Objects

References to Indigenous artworks, designs, objects, or images, need to note the Nation or Country and/or language group of the Indigenous person or community who created them, and where the people or Country are located. Sometimes this is not known, in which case we use "unrecorded location". This information is placed directly after the title. If the creator is not known we use "Unrecorded" in place of the creator. If there is no title, we use "Untitled". If there is no date, we use "n.d.". If the year is only known approximately we write "c." in front of the year, or use a range of years.

The references below would be referenced in text as follows: (McRae 1899), (Yirawala c. 1965), (Unrecorded 1912-13), (Wilson 2003), (Unrecorded n.d.), (Unrecorded 1800/1940), (Unrecorded 1860/1940), (Tjanpitjinpa 2001), (Campbell Jr 1988), (Apuatimi n.d.)

McRae, T. 1899, Rutherglen corroboree, Kwat Kwat clan, Wahgunyah district, Northeast Victoria, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 27 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/rutherglen-corroboree/lgHwL9l0sN44-w>.

Yirawala c. 1965, Maratlaitj, mother of tribes, Kuninjku (Eastern Kunwinjku) people, Maningrida, Central Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 27 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/maralaitj-mother-of-the-tribes/ywFrMbZsuLSwBQ>.

Unrecorded 1912-13, Ancestor and snake, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 28 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/ancestor-and-snake/uwHcQPaRPH7dxw>.

Wilson, R. 2003, Syaw - fish net, Peppimenarti people, Fitzmaurice region, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 29 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/syaw---fish-net/HAHSLdJUi9eewQ>.

Unrecorded n.d., Baiame cave, Wonnarua people, Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia, photographed by R. Downie, Flickr, viewed 31 October 2016, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/robertdownie/23277332960/>.

Unrecorded 1800/1940, X-ray kangaroo, Maung language group, Wellington Range, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 30 October 2016, <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/x-ray-kangaroo/xAFZtDFTBF_fMA>.

Unrecorded 1860/1940, Solid white female figure, Maung language group, Wellington Range, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, rock painting, Djulirri, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia.

Tjanpitjinpa, R. 2001, Untitled, Pintupi people, Central and Western Desert, Northern Territory, Australia, painting, Art Gallery of NSW, Sydney.

Campbell Jr, R. 1988, Abo history (facts), Ngaku people, Kempsey, NSW, Australia, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Apuatimi, D. n.d., Bark painting, Tiwi people, Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

The last few examples are references to the actual artworks, viewed and possibly photographed in person. In these cases, we also add the type of artwork or object immediately after the location of the Country.

Graph, Figure or Table

When using a graph, figure or table from some source, reference that source both in your text and in the reference list. Place an in-text reference after the caption of the graph, figure or table. If the original source has many pages, it is a good idea to include a page number in the in-text reference to indicate the page where the graph, figure or table was found. Page numbers are not needed if the source has only a few pages.

If you made a table or graph with data that you found in several sources, include all these sources in the in-text reference after the caption (with page numbers if appropriate), and include all the sources in your reference list.

The format of the caption is:

  • for a graph or figure: the word Figure followed by a number, a colon, a brief description, and (if required) an in-text reference. The caption is placed belowthe graph or figure.
  • for a table: the word Table followed by a number, a colon, a brief description, and (if required) an in-text reference. The caption is placed above the table.

So you might have a caption underneath a figure such as:
Figure 4: The Sydney Harbour Bridge (Smith 2015, p. 76).

In your text, you might say: We can see in Figure 4 one of the impressive bridges in Sydney.

And in your reference list, you might have:
Smith, K. 2015, Famous bridges of Australia, Random House, Melbourne.

In the above example, the figure was found on page 76 of the book by Smith.

Similarly you might have a caption above a table such as:
Table 3: Tide levels in Sydney 1999-2012 (Bureau of Meteorology 2005, p. 88-90; Bureau of Meteorology 2010; Williamson 2013)

In your text you might say: Table 3 shows that tides in Sydney have shown great variation over recent years.

And in your reference list you might have:
Bureau of Meteorology 2005, NSW Tides 1999-2004, AGPS, Canberra.
Bureau of Meteorology 2010, NSW Tides 2005-2010, viewed 16 May 2016, <www.bom.gov.au/tides2005/sydney/>.
Williamson, J.L. 2013, 'Recent tide variations in Sydney', Journal of Coastal Change, vol. 7, issue 11, pp. 36-40.

In the above example, the table used data from three sources. Page numbers were used in the in-text citation when the data came from a book, but were not needed in the in-text citation when the data came from a webpage or a short journal article.

YouTube

The information you need to gather to reference a YouTube video (or Vimeo or any similar public streaming video platform) includes:

    • author(s)
    • year (it was uploaded)
    • title (in italics)
    • description of the source (video recording)
    • hosting site (eg: YouTube, Vimeo)
    • date you viewed the video
    • URL

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Mouyis 2017)

(PewDiePie 2017)

(UTS Library 2009)

If you need to reference a quote in a YouTube video, use the start time of the quote within the video, eg (UTS Library 2009, 0:54)

Reference list

Mouyis, A. 2017, Dahlia, video recording, Vimeo, viewed 18 October 2017,<https://vimeo.com/209783901>.

PewDiePie 2017, 7 signs you’re a toxic gamer!, video recording, YouTube, viewed 18 October 2017,  <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=meqT-KSYj7I>.

UTS Library 2009, It’s the UTS Library with Mr Hank, video recording, YouTube, viewed 21 September 2009, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYP_hZmcRgg>.

Podcast

Podcasts are a little bit different to traditional radio broadcasts as traditional radio broadcasts don’t have authors and episode titles. So, if your audio recording has an author, and an episode title and is being accessed from a podcast platform like ITunes or Stitcher, then use this format. If you are listening to a radio broadcast over the airwaves, use the Radio template.

The information you need to gather to reference a Podcast includes:

    • Author(s)
    • Year (it was uploaded)
    • Title of the episode (in 'single quotes')
    • Program name (in italics)
    • description of the source - audio podcast
    • podcast platform eg: ITunes, Radio National
    • platform location (can be left out if unsure)
    • broadcast or upload date
    • date you viewed the video
    • URL in angle brackets

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Crawford 2009)

(Pineapple Street Media 2017)

Reference list

Crawford, M. 2009, 'Shop class as soulcraft', Future Tense, audio podcast, Radio National, Sydney, 5 November, viewed 18 November 2009, <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/futuretense/stories/2009/2728755.htm>.

Pineapple Street Media 2017, ‘Stakeout’, Missing Richard Simmons, audio podcast, ITunes, February 22, viewed 13 October 2017, <https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/missing-richard-simmons/id1203092300?mt=2>.

Film

The information you need to gather to reference a film is seen below. 

    • Title (in italics)
    • Year of publication or release
    • description of format - motion picture
    • Distributor or Publisher
    • Place of recording or publication (can be left out if unclear)

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

       (The Edge of the possible 1998)

(Muriel’s wedding 1994)

Reference list

Notice that in the same reference list below The edge of the possible comes before Muriels wedding because the word The in the title does not count when ordering the titles alphabetically.

The edge of the possible 1998, DVD, Ronin Films.

Muriel’s wedding 1994, motion picture, Roadshow Entertainment, Sydney.

TV and Radio Programs

TV Episode

This format is used to reference a particular tv episode from a series. If you are referring to a tv series as a whole generally you only need to refer to it in the body of your writing in italics. You don’t need to reference it using in text references or include it in your reference list.

If you are referencing a tv drama or comedy, or any other type of tv show that has individual episode names, use this convention:

    • Title of the broadcast (in italics)
    • Year of broadcast
    • format  -use television program 
    • Series title 
    • Television or platform name (if relevant)
    • Location of the station (can be left our if unclear)
    • Viewed date (if url is available)
    • URL in angle brackets (if relevant)

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

(Canberra firestorm 2003)

       (More pants 2017)

       (The Vulcan Hello 2017)

Reference list

Canberra firestorm 2003, television program, Catalyst, ABC TV, Sydney, 3 March.

No matter what 2017, television program, Bookaboo, ABC Iview, viewed 26 October 2017, <http://iview.abc.net.au/programs/bookaboo/ZX1214A009S00>.

The Vulcan Hello 2017, television program, Star Trek Discovery, Netflix. 

News and Current Affairs Broadcasts

If you are referencing a news or current affairs broadcast where there are no identifying names for the broadcast, use this convention:

  • title of the tv show (in italics)
  • year of creation or broadcast
  • format (use television program)
  • television channel or platform name (if relevant)
  • location of the station (can be left out if not clear)
  • broadcast date (day month)

Once you have collected this information you will need to display it as shown in the examples below:

In text

       (A current Affair 2003)

Reference list

A current affair 2003, television program, Channel 9, Sydney, 3 March.

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