UTS Library

Website and Social Media

The website referencing format should only be used for websites where the online version is the only version, or the most commonly used version; or where there is a print version but it is significantly different from the online version. If your website is an online book, journal, newspaper or magazine artice, conference paper, thesis etc, check the relevant sections of this guide.
Before referencing a website you will need to collect the following information:

  • person or organisation who wrote or created the webpage (if known)
  • year the webpage was created or last updated. If the year is not found you can use n.d. instead.
  • title of the webpage (in italics)
  • type of website (if necessary, eg weblog, podcast)
  • organisation responsible for the website. If this is the same as the author, it can be left out.
  • place where the organisation is located (can be left out if it is unclear)
  • day month and year you last accessed the website eg. viewed 31 January 2012
  • full URL <in angle brackets>.

Once you have collected this information you will need to arrange it as displayed in the example below.

Department of Immigration 2011, Fact Sheet 1 - Immigration: The Background Part One, Canberra, viewed 5 March 2012,<http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/01backgd.htm>.

For more information about referencing a webpage or social media posts please expand any of the options below. You can also get help with referencing at any time via the Ask a Librarian page. 

In Text

In the text of your document the format is (Author Year). Note that the year here is the year the webpage was created or last updated, not the year you accessed it.

If you are sourcing a quotation from a website, you will not be able to quote a page number, so instead use the paragraph number, abbreviated with the term 'para.'

Eg: (Department of Finance 2009, para. 5)

If the webpage is particularly long and unwieldy, describe the section of the website that contains your quotation in the body of your writing, and then mention the paragraph number in the in-text citation.

Eg: In the Summer Collections section of the Fashion Report for 2013, it was predicted that 'red would be the colour for 2014' (Style Daily 2013, para. 16).

Blog or Tweet

If your website is a blog you can (if you wish) reference a particular posting ('in single quotes') as well as the blog's main title. Type the word weblog (which blog is short for) after the main title.

To reference a tweet, use the author's real name; use the Twitter handle as the author only if the author's real name in unknown. Enclose the tweet itself in 'single quotes'. Type the words Twitter post, and the day and month of the post, after the text of the tweet.

In text

(Green 2009) or (Obama 2009)

Reference list

Obama, B. 2009, 'Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020', Twitter post, 28 January,viewed 24 February 2012,< http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366>.

Green, A. 2009, 'Fremantle by-election: should the Liberals run?', Antony Green's election blog, weblog, ABCSydney,viewed 10 April 2009,< http://blogs.abc.net.au/antonygreen/2009/04/fremantle-by-el.html>.

Facebook post

Place the first few words of the post (up to about 15 words) in 'single quotes', using [...] if necessary to indicate that some words have been left out. Type the words Facebook post, and the day and month of the post, after the text of the post. Use the URL of the Facebook home page containing the post.

In text

(UTS Library 2014)

Reference list

UTS Library 2014, ''Welcome back to uni! In the spirit of returning to student life [...]', Facebook Post, 25 February,viewed 27 February 2014, <https://www.facebook.com/UTSLibrary>.

Government or company website

Normally you should use for your author the name of the department, organisation, or company that created the website. However, if there are people listed as the authors of the page, use them as the authors.

In text

(Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2012) or (Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2011) or (Hallet & O’Meara 2002)

Reference list

Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2012, ABC Radio National, viewed 13 March 2012, <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational>.

Department of Immigration 2011, Fact Sheet 1 - Immigration: The Background Part One, Canberra, viewed 5 March 2012,<http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/01backgd.htm>.

Hallett, B. & O'Meara, B. 2002, Australia celebrates the 100th anniversary of women's right to votee, Australian Electoral Commission, Canberra, viewed 17 November 2009,<http://www.aec.gov.au/About_AEC/Media_releases/2002/australia_celebrates_02.htm>.

No date or no author

It is very rare for a website to have no date - you can usually find the year of the latest update at the bottom of the page. If there really is no date, use n.d. (for 'no date') instead of the year, eg (White n.d.)

If there are no listed authors, list the organization as the author and do not mention them again as after the title. If there is no obvious organisation that created the webpage (check down the bottom of the page), use the title of the webpage as the author, followed by the year published or last updated. In the following example the website has no author or date, and no listed publication details, so it has to be referenced very minimally! Note that (as always) the web page title is in italics.

In text

(Jeu du Tock n.d.)

Reference List

Jeu du Tock n.d., viewed 12 March 2012, <http://jeuxstrategie.free.fr/Tock_complet.php>.

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