Referencing examples of online sources and websites using the Harvard UTS Referencing style:
Key elements of a website are:
Author(s) Year, Title of webpage (in italics), Type of website (if necessary), Organisation (if different from author), Location (if known), Date accessed, URL <in angle brackets>.
In the text of your document the format is (Author Year). Note that the year here is the year the webpage was created or last updated, not the year you accessed it.
If you are sourcing a quotation from a website, you will not be able to quote a page number, so instead use the paragraph number, abbreviated with the term 'para.'
Eg: (Department of Finance 2009, para. 5)
If the webpage is particularly long and unwieldy, describe the section of the website that contains your quotation in the body of your writing, and then mention the paragraph number in the in-text citation.
Eg: In the Summer Collections section of the Fashion Report for 2013, it was predicted that 'red would be the colour for 2014' (Style Daily 2013, para. 16).
The website referencing format should only be used for websites where the online version is the only version, or the most commonly used version; or where there is a print version but it is significantly different from the online version. If your website is an online book, journal, newspaper or magazine artice, conference paper, thesis etc, check the relevant sections of this guide.
Key elements of a website reference are the:
- person or organisation who wrote or created the webpage (if known)
- year the webpage was created or last updated. If the year is not found you can use n.d. instead.
- title of the webpage (in italics)
- type of website (if necessary, eg weblog, podcast)
- organisation responsible for the website. If this is the same as the author, it can be left out.
- place where the organisation is located (can be left out if it is unclear)
- day month and year you last accessed the website eg. viewed 31 January 2012
- full URL <in angle brackets>.
The year and other information about the website can often be found at the bottom of the webpage.
If your website is a blog you can (if you wish) reference a particular posting ('in single quotes') as well as the blog's main title. Type the word weblog (which blog is short for) after the main title.
To reference a tweet, use the Twitter handle as the author and enclose the tweet itself in single quotes. Type the day and month of the post, and the words Twitter post after the tweet.
(Green 2009) or (BarackObama 2009)
BarackObama 2009, 'Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020', 28 January, Twitter post, viewed 24 February 2012, <http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366>.
Green, A. 2009, 'Fremantle by-election: should the Liberals run?', Antony Green's election blog, weblog, ABC, Sydney, viewed 10 April 2009, <http://blogs.abc.net.au/antonygreen/2009/04/fremantle-by-el.html>.
Cochrane systematic reviews are usually sourced from the Library’s Wiley online databases or can be sourced from Cochrane Library online. For referencing purposes we recommend you use Wiley online database to view the key reference elements.
The key elements for Cochrane systematic reviews are:
- Year (assessed as up to date)
- Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (in italics)
- Issue number (located after opening How to Cite link within the Wiley online database)
- Date you viewed the report
(Bellemare et al. 2006)
Bellemare, S., Wiebe, N., Russell, K.F., Klassen, T.P. & Craig, W.R. 2006, 'Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration to gastroenteritis in children', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, viewed 31 August 2011 <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004390.pub2/abstract>.
Normally you should use for your author the name of the department, organisation, or company that created the website. However, if there are people listed as the authors of the page, use them as the authors.
(Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2012) or (Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2011) or (Hallet & O’Meara 2002)
Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2012, ABC Radio National, viewed 13 March 2012, <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational>.
Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2011, Fact sheet 1 - Immigration: the background part one, Canberra, viewed 5 March 2012, <http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/01backgd.htm>.
Hallett, B. & O'Meara, B. 2002, Australia celebrates the 100th anniversary of women's right to vote, Australian Electoral Commission, Canberra, viewed 17 November 2009, <http://www.aec.gov.au/About_AEC/Media_releases/2002/australia_celebrates_02.htm>.
(see also our Referencing an image/artwork):
Wain, A. 2009, Sculpture by the sea - Elephant, Flickr, viewed 4 February 2014, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexwain/4091011517/>.
With images from Flickr, if the author's name is not given use the username instead (that would be alexwain in the example above) for both in-text citations and reference list.
It is very rare for a website to have no date - you can usually find the year of the latest update at the bottom of the page. If there really is no date, use n.d. (for 'no date') instead of the year, eg (White n.d.)
If there are no listed authors, list the organization as the author and do not mention them again as after the title. If there is no obvious organisation that created the webpage (check down the bottom of the page), use the title of the webpage as the author, followed by the year published or last updated. In the following example the website has no author or date, and no listed publication details, so it has to be referenced very minimally! Note that (as always) the web page title is in italics.
(Jeu du Tock n.d.)
Jeu du Tock n.d., viewed 12 March 2012, <http://jeuxstrategie.free.fr/Tock_complet.php>.
If you downloaded a podcast from a website, it may be an audio file or a video file. Details of the radio or television program (program name, station name, station location, and broadcast date) should be provided.
(Crawford 2009) or (Small town salvation 2009)
Crawford, M. 2009, Shop class as soulcraft, audio podcast, Future Tense Radio National, ABC Radio, Sydney, 5 November, viewed 18 November 2009, <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/futuretense/stories/2009/2728755.htm>.
Small town salvation 2009, video podcast, Compass Television Program, ABC TV, Sydney, 1 November, viewed 18 November 2009, <http://www.abc.net.au/compass/s2707046.htm>.
Reports are often in-house publications, usually have very focused subject matter, and may be only a few pages in length. They often have a report number. Report authors are often organisations.
Examples of reports would be company annual reports, heritage reports, departmental reports, research group reports, and some ABS publications. Reports are referenced in a very similar way to books. Because many reports are freely available online, and often hard to get hold of in print, it is common to reference the online version of a report.
Example of report available in print
(Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999) or (Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996)
Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade 1999, Annual report 1998-99, DFAT, Canberra.
Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996, Report on public fundraising by charitable institutions, Report Number 75, Government Printer, Hobart.
Example of report viewed online
(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009)
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Education and work, Australia, May 2009, cat. no. 6227.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 24 November 2009, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6227.0?OpenDocument>.
If your website is a YouTube video, the author (the person who submitted it - this might be a login name) and the year posted are shown just to the upper right of the main viewing screen. Type the words video recording after the main title.
(UTS Library 2009)
If you need to reference a quote in a YouTube video, use the start time of the quote within the video, eg (UTS Library 2009, 0:54)
UTS Library 2009, It's the UTS Library with Mr Hank, video recording, YouTube, viewed 21 September 2009, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYP_hZmcRgg>.