UTS Library

Quoting and Page Numbers

Paraphrasing, summarising and quoting are three ways to avoid plagiarism in your work at university. Watch this video on using information ethically, then select the headings below to learn how to paraphrase, summarise and quote sources in Harvard UTS.



If you are just talking about someone’s ideas or are rewording their original words, then you are paraphrasing. You acknowledge the work you are paraphrasing by creating an in-text reference. If you are merely paraphrasing you do not need to give page numbers, though you can elect to add them if the document you are using is very long, such as a book. This helps the reader locate the original words or ideas that you are paraphrasing.

Students of FASS courses should always include page numbers in an in-text reference.

The theory was first propounded by Larsen (1971), and was confirmed two decades later (Williams & Jones 1991, p. 17).


If you are using someone else’s words exactly you are quoting. When you quote in the Harvard UTS style you need to place those words in single quotes, like this: ‘quote’. You also need to provide a page number indicating where the quote has come from:

‘It was the best of times it was the worst of times’ (Dickens 1859, p. 1).

Use pp. if your quote starts on one pages and finishes on another:

‘there was “Balegate” (an assist for Gareth Bale that was never given, despite plenty of TV evidence to the contrary)’ (Wardale 2018, pp. 59-60).

Quoting from a web page

When quoting from a web page use para. to indicate the paragraph where the words from your quote can be found:

‘my favourite small brown animals are hedgehogs and porcupines’ (Small 2013, para. 12).

Quoting from a presentation

For a presentation, use slide. See rules on in-text referencing to learn how to caption a screenshot of a presentation slide in your work.

(Jakubowicz 2014, slide 5)

Quoting from an image

For an image, use fig. (short for 'figure'). See rules on in-text referencing to learn how to caption an image in your work.

(Alberts 2002, fig. 7)

Quoting from a video or audio recording

Generally you shouldn’t need to quote from a video or audio recording, but if required you should use a time stamp in the form minutes:seconds.

(Spiegel 2009, 5:36)

Quoting from eBooks without page numbers

If you are quoting from an eBook without page numbers you can help the reader find your quote using chapter numbers and paragraph numbers like this:

Williams and Smith (2008, ch. 2, para. 7) stated that ...

Quoting from Kindle and eReaders

If you are quoting from a book that is being read on an eReader such as a Kindle use the page number seen on your screen reader and then place a forward slash and indicate the total length of the book. This will help the reader adjust the number of pages of their book to match yours, so that they can locate the quote.

‘The night is dark and full of terrors’ (Martin 2003, p. 71/512)

Quotes of more than 30 words

When making a direct quote of more than about thirty words do not use quotation marks but include the quote as a separate paragraph, indented from the text margin and set in smaller type size.


This is further complemented by the idea from Mason (2004) who argues that:

The consumerist lifestyle feeds itself through spiralling desire from material gratification that can never be stated and that attention should turn to opposing today's excessive consumerism by focusing on the benefits of a lifestyle of moderation and self-restraint. This should be of key focus to all (p. 52).

Quoting from a work referencing another author

Sometimes a document you are reading will contain a quote from another author, and you will want to use that quote.

For example, on page 78 of a book by Kip Thorne, written in 1994, you find a quote from a 1906 paper by Albert Einstein. To cite the work by Einstein you should mention Einstein's paper in your writing and use Thorne as your in-text reference, with a page number. There are many ways you could do this. Here are four examples:


Einstein stated in 1906 that 'time is relative' (Thorne 1994, p. 78).

Thorne (1994, p. 78) quotes Einstein as saying in 1906 that 'time is relative'.

The theory that 'time is relative', first stated by Einstein in 1906 (Thorne 1994, p. 78).

It is generally accepted that ‘time is relative’ (Einstein, cited in Thorne 1994, p. 78).

Reference list

Thorne K.S. 1994, Black holes and time warps: Einstein's outrageous legacy, W.W. Norton & Company, New York.

In your reference list you must have the full reference for Thorne. You do not need to cite the Einstein work in your reference list.

Page numbering

Page numbers are used in-text when quoting. You can also mention page numbers when paraphrasing if you feel it will aid the reader, such as in the case of long documents like books. FASS students must provide page numbering at all times, whether they are quoting or paraphrasing.

You should not place the page numbers from your in-text references into your reference list. Page numbers when used in reference lists have nothing to do with quotes, but instead are used to indicate the first and last pages of a journal, magazine or newspaper article, or the first and last pages of a chapter in an edited book.

When mentioning page numbers either in-text or in your reference list, use pp. when describing multiple pages, and p. when talking about a single page:

If there are numbers in a page range stay the same you do not use those numbers at the back end of the page range. For example a page range of 11 to 16 would look like this: pp. 11-6
And a page range of 232 to 245 would look like this: pp. 232-45

More examples can be seen below:


... from the messenger' (Warren 2016, p. 9). Mackay defines the term by analysing series of literature from the field (2001, pp. 9-10) ...

Use the whole numbers for the first page in the range. Describe only the numbers tha have changed in the second page of the range:


'... ideology is also post-consciousness and post-experience' (Brabazon, Redhead & Chivaura 2018, pp. 4-5). Values, vision statements and professional practices models (Hancock 2018, pp. 240-1) are described ...

Reference list

Brabazon, T., Redhead S., and Chivaura, R. 2018, 'Trump Studies: the double refusal and silent majorities in theoretical times', Cultural Studies Review, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 3-25.

Hancock, K. 2018, 'Factors that influence organizational culture', in A.M. Beauvais (ed.), Leadership and management competence in nursing practice: competencies, skills, decision making, Spring Publishing Company, New York, pp. 226-45. 

If you are reading an article in a magazine where the article jumps around, for example if an article begins on pages 28-31 and then has its final part on pages 57-58, then you would list the page numbers in your reference list like this:

Reference list

Masson, V. 2017, 'Best exercises for HIIT', Women's Health Magazine, January, pp. 28-31, 57-8.