UTS Library

Reference List

In your written work the reference list should begin on a new page. This list must be arranged alphabetically by the surnames of the first authors, or if there are no authors, by the title. See here for instructions on alphabetising a reference list in Word. The reference list is normally the last part of a piece of academic writing, unless there is an appendix.

Reference list

Arif, M., Goulding, J.S. & Rahimian, F.P. 2012, 'Promoting off-site construction: future challenges and opportunities', Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 75-8.

Hawking, S.W. 1988, A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes, Bantam, UK.

How to save elephants 2017, Wikihow, viewed 5 December 2017, <https://www.wikihow.com/Help-Save-Elephants>.

Whilst in-text references are largely the same regardless of the thing you are citing, reference list entries vary according to the kind of reference they are (book, journal article, website etc). The sections of this guide and our interactive pdf show how different types of references should look in your reference list.

Formatting your reference List

When a reference is more than one line long, the extra lines are normally indented by a tab space (this is called a 'hanging indent'). If you are using Word you can create a hanging indent with CTRL-T or Command-T, or alternatively you can change the ruler or paragraph settings

Examples have been bolded to help you use this guide, please do not bold anything in your reference list. 

Main title

Book titles, report titles, journal names and website titles should be in italics.

Reference list

Chissick, M. & Kelman, A. 2002, Electronic commerce : law and practice, 3rd edn, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Gillespie, N.C., Lewis, R.J., Pearn, J.H., Bourke, A.T.C., Holmes, M.J., Bourke, J.B. & Shields, W.J. 1986, 'Ciguatera in Australia: occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology and management', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 145, no. 11-12, pp. 584-90.

McLeod, S. 2016, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Simply Psychology, viewed 9 August 2017, <https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html>.

Secondary title

Chapter titles from books, article titles from a journal, newspaper or magazine, conference paper titles, posts on social media and titles of theses are in ‘single quotation marks’.

Reference list

Babayan, K. 1993, 'The waning of the Qizilbash: the spiritual and temporal in seventeenth century Iran', PhD thesis, Princeton University, NJ.

BarkingPanther 2017, ‘If my kitchen is any indicator, plastic grocery bags’, forum post, Reddit, 7 November, viewed 8 November 2017, <https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/7bg8nw/you_are_a_dragon_with_all_th>.

Coleman, S. 2003, 'Democracy in an e-connected world', in R. Davidson (ed.), The e-connected world: risks and opportunities, McGill University Press, Montreal, pp. 125-32.

Islamoglu, H. & Keyder, C. 1977, 'Agenda for Ottoman history', Review, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31-55.

Upper, lower and sentence case

All major words in the names of journals, newspapers and magazines should start with a capital letter. In other titles, all words should start with a lower case letter (except the first word and proper nouns). If you have a title with a subtitle separated by a colon, have the subtitle start with a lower case letter.
* You may have to alter the capitalisation of words in your original document to accord with the Harvard (UTS) style (for example you may need to decapitalise words in an article title).

Reference list

Fagaly, R.L. & Macintyre, S.A. 2014, 'Magnetic field measurement', in J.G. Webster & H. Eren (eds), Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook: electromagnetic, optical, radiation, chemical, and biomedical measurement, 2nd edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 39:1-32.

Using titles in place of an author

If you have to include a reference in your reference list that begins with a title (such as a film or a report with no author), place the reference within your list alphabetically by the title. The title should be in italics or 'single quotes', according to the rules above. If the title of the reference begins with the words A, An or The, do not count this word when placing the reference into the list.
For more rules about how to place authors in a reference list see the authors section

Reference list

The edge of the possible 1998, motion picture, Ronin Films, Canberra.

Muriel’s wedding 1994, motion picture, Roadshow Entertainment, Sydney.

Referencing a non English title

If you are referencing a document written in a foreign language, use the original title. However, if you wish you can add a translation of the title following the original, in round brackets and without italics (eg: for book titles) or quote marks (eg: for journal articles). There is no need to translate journal titles.

If you are referencing a document written in a foreign script, try to find an official translation for the title (and author). If you can’t find an official translation, try to find or create a transliteration. For example if the title was in Chinese characters you should express it in pinyin for the purposes of referencing in the Harvard UTS style. If you add an English translation as well as a transliteration, the translation follows the transliteration and is enclosed in round brackets, as in the example below.

For example, if the source details in Chinese are (HKBU 2019):

Author: 譚建光
Article title: 中國社工與志愿者合作的模式
Journal title: 廣東青年干部學院學報

The reference list entry would read:

Reference list

Jung, C.G. 1964, Der Mensch und seine Symbole (Man and his symbols), Walter Verlag, Olten, Germany.

Tan, J.G. 2011, 'Zhongguo shegong yu zhiyuanzhe hezuo de moshi' (Partnership model between Chinese social workers and volunteers), Guangdong qingnian ganbu xueyuan xuebao, vol. 25, iss. 26, pp. 12-8.

Place of publication

Published in Australia

If the place of publication is Canberra or an Australian state capital city, just use the city name. For other locations in Australia, including suburbs of capital cities, add the abbreviated state name after the city or suburb name. 

Reference list

The edge of the possible 1998, motion picture, Ronin Films, Canberra.

Published in the UK

If the place of publication is the city of London, just use the city name. For other locations in the UK, add UK after the city name. 

Reference list

Chissick, M. & Kelman, A. 2002, Electronic commerce: law and practice, 3rd edn, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Hawking, S.W. 1988, A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes, Bantam, UK.

Published in America

If the place of publication is the city of New York, just use the city name. For other locations in America, add the standard state abbreviation after the city name. 

Reference list

Shaw, L. 2016, 'The meanings of new money: social constructions of value in the rise of digital currencies', PhD thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Wallace, P.M. 2016, The psychology of the Internet, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Published in other countries or regions

For other international locations, add the country name after the city name unless the city is a capital city or is very well known, for example Paris, Moscow, New Delhi, Beijing, Tokyo and so on.

If in doubt, add the country name. Use standard English spellings for cities and countries (e.g. Naples rather than Napoli, Germany rather than Deutschland). If a city or country name has changed since the book was published, use what appears in the book (eg Breslau or USSR).

No place of publication found

If you can't find a place of publication, try searching the publisher's name into Google. If you are still unsucessful, use n.p. (for 'no place'):

Reference list

Hampton, M. 2009, Figure drawing: design and invention, Michael Hampton, n.p.

Reference lists, bibliographies and annotated bibliographies

Bibliographies are similar to reference lists, but they also can include references not cited in-text. Generally it is not advisable to do this at UTS, unless you are specifically asked to do so. It is generally better if all references in your bibliography are cited somewhere in your text.

Creating an annotated bibliography is something that you may be asked to do at UTS. This is a bibliography, usually presented as a stand alone document, where underneath each entry in the bibliography is an annotation, usually one or two sentences, describing the content of the reference. This type of bibliography is often created as part of a literature review. The library has sample annotations you can use to create your own annotated bibliography.


An appendix can be used to hold any extra material that you want the reader to be able to consult, when the additional material might obstruct the flow of writing in your main document.

Normally the reference list is the final part of a piece of academic writing, but appendices are an exception to this: you should place any appendices after your reference list.

Each appendix should be titled and numbered (e.g. Appendix A, Appendix B), and listed in the table of contents, if you have one.

Appendices tend to be more common in reports and research writing (eg: theses) than they are in essays

What material should be placed in an appendix

Anything that it is not essential in the body of the report itself, or is too lengthy and would interrupt the flow of information.
Examples of material that might be placed in an appendix:

  • Data, statistics and empirical findings
  • Document templates (eg: questionnaires and consent forms)
  • Transcripts
  • Maps and charts
  • Tables and diagrams
  • Multimedia files (eg:photos)

Ways to refer to an appendix in the text
Generally you direct the reader to an appendix within the body of your writing by opening brackets and writing (See Appendix A or Appendix B). See example below.

In the Aged Care business at ABC Mission, there are two Regional Directors, one for Western Region and one for Northern Region (see Appendix B for the organisational chart for ABC).

You can reference within an appendix if you wish. You would do this in the same way as you would in the rest of your work, and include the reference in your reference list.

Further reading
Business Faculty Guide to Writing Assignments
UTS Library Academic Writing Guide Part 2 – Assignment Types
Sample report from HELPS including an appendix

Abbreviations used in reference lists

circa (used for approx. date)c.
catalogue numbercat. no.
editor, -sed.  eds
issue numberiss.
no date of publicationn.d.
no place of publication or no pagen.p.
page, pagesp.  pp.
volume numbervol.