UTS Library

Indigenous Material

References to Indigenous artworks, designs, objects, or images, need to note the Nation or Country and/or language group of the Indigenous person or community who created them as well as where the Country is located. Sometimes this is not known, in which case we use "unrecorded location". This page includes examples of Indigenous materials that are viewed online and in person.

Viewed online:

For materials viewed online, use the following format:  

Creator Year, Title, Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country, Publisher, viewed date, <URL>.

If the image is by a single Indigenous creator.

In-text

...as portayed in Whiskey's work (2018).

Reference list

Whiskey, K. 2018, Kaylene TV, Indulkana, APY Lands, South Australia, Art Gallery of NSW, viewed 20 December 2018, <https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/prizes/sulman/2018/29987/>.

If the image is untitled, use the word Untitled in place of a title.

In-text

In 2018, Napangati...

Reference list

Napangati, Y. 2018, Untitled, Papunya Tula, Northern Territory, Australia, Art Gallery of NSW, viewed 20 December 2018, <https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/prizes/wynne/2018/30021/>.

If the creator is not known we use Unrecorded in place of the creator. The date in this example means the work was created over those two years. If there is no date we write “n.d”. If the year is only known approximately we write “c” in front of the year or use a range of years.

In-text

...meaning and knowledge (Unrecorded 1912-13).

Reference list

Unrecorded 1912-13, Ancestor and snake, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 20 December 2018, <https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/prizes/wynne/2018/30021/>.

If there are multiple Indigenous creators from the same place, write their names after the Country/Language information.

In-text

George & Cooper (2018)...

Reference list

George, W. & Cooper, T. 2018, Piltati and Malara: A story of love and war, APY Lands (George & Cooper), South Australia, Hazelhurst Gallery, viewed 18 December 2018, <https://www.sutherlandshire.nsw.gov.au/Community/Hazelhurst/Exhibitions/Weapons-For-The-Soldier>.

If there are multiple Indigenous creators from different places, write the name of the creator after their Country/Language information.

In-text

(Timbrey & Jones 2015)

Reference list

Timbrey E. & Jones, J. 2015, Shell Wall, Bidjigal/Eora (Timbrey), La Perouse, NSW, Australia, Wiradjuri/Kamilaroi (Jones), NSW, Australia, Barangaroo Delivery Authority, viewed 18 December 2018, <https://www.barangaroo.com/the-project/arts-and-public-program/shell-wall-2015-by-esme-timbery-and-jonathan-jones/>.

If the work is a collaboration between Indigenous and non-Indigenous creators, write the name of the Indigenous creator after their Country/Language information.

In-text

(Jagamara & Tillers 2017)

Reference list

Jagamara M. N. & Tillers, I. 2017, Metafisica Australe 2017, Warlpiri/Luritja (Jagamara), Papunya region, Northern Territory, Australia, Queensland Art Gallery of Modern Art (QAGOMA), viewed 18 December 2018, <https://blog.qagoma.qld.gov.au/michael-nelson-jagamara-imants-tillers-metafisica-australe/>.

If the work has been photographed and you know the name of the photographer, list the photographer before the publisher.

In-text

… demonstrated in the photographs of the location (Unrecorded n.d.).

Reference list

Unrecorded n.d., Baiame cave, Wonnarua people, Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia, photographed by R. Downie, Flickr, viewed 20 December 2018, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/robertdownie/23277332960/>.

 

Viewed in person:

If the work was viewed in person (ie viewed by you) use the following format:

Creator Year, Title, Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country, Type of work, Museum/Gallery/Site, Place.

If the work was viewed in person in a museum or gallery by a single Indigenous creator.

In-text

(Campbell Jr 1988)

Reference list

Campbell Jr, R. 1988, Abo history (facts), Ngaku people, Kempsey, NSW, Australia, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

If the work was viewed in situ, in this example the use of a forward slash in the year indicates a work was begun at an earlier date and added to later.

In-text

(Unrecorded 1860/1940)

Reference list

Unrecorded 1860/1940, Solid white female figure, Maung language group, Wellington Range, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, rock painting, Djulirri, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia.

Not sure what your in-text reference should look like?
Learn about authors, in-text citations and more or how to enter Indigenous Materials viewed online and Indigenous Materials viewed in person into Endnote.

Creative Commons License
UTS Library guide to referencing Indigenous material by Danièle Hromek & Sophie Herbert is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Related Questions

1 answer|85 votes|[totalcount]|Emily asked about Indigenous Material 2 years ago