UTS Library

Legal Material

Please note that this section is for the Harvard UTS Style only. 

Double check the reference style required for your subject, as Law students are usually required to use the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) style instead of Harvard UTS.

Case Law

Important cases are usually 'reported', which means they are published in a recognised law report series.

Case name (Year) Volume number (then) Abbreviated name of law report (then) First page number.

Sometimes a case is only available as an 'unreported' case, meaning it has not yet been written up in a law report series. Australian unreported cases are generally available online in 'medium neutral' format:

Case name [Year] Abbreviated name of court (then) Judgment number.

In-text

... introduced in the case of Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1920), this was later overturned on appeal (UBS AG v Tyne 2018).

There are numerous instances of this type of judgement, the foremost of which is (Maguire v Leather 2009) ...

Reference list

Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (1920) 28 CLR 129.

Maguire v Leather [2009] HCASL 48.

UBS AG v Tyne [2018] HCA 45.

Tips:

  • Cases should always be referenced as print even if viewed electronically.
  • Case names should always be referred to in full in your referencing.
  • Most reported cases use round brackets around the year. Unreported cases, and some reported cases, use square brackets around the year. When referencing, copy the formatting of the original citation.
  • If you need to quote from a case, add the page number where your quote comes from to your in-text citation as you would for other sources, eg (Amalgamated Society of Engineers v Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd 1920, p. 131).

Still experiencing some difficulty? 
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Acts

Acts are laws which have been voted on and passed by legislatures in various jurisdictions. In Australia, these are the Commonwealth, State and Territory Parliaments.

Name of Act Year (Jurisdiction)

In-text

… where this particular offense is dealt with (Crimes Act 1900, s. 41A). As can also be seen in the Environmental Legislation Amendment Act (2015, ss. 45-7) …

Reference list

Crimes Act 1900 (NSW).

Environmental Legislation Amendment Act 2015 (Cth).

Tips:

  • Legislation should always be referenced as if in print, even if viewed electronically.
  • The Jurisdiction is abbreviated. In Australia the abbreviations are Cth (for Commonwealth), NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA, Tas, ACT and NT.
  • You can specify particular sections of an Act in-text if you wish, using s. for one section or ss. for several sections. See examples above.

Unsure about online sources? 
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Bills

A Bill is a draft Act that has not yet been passed by a Parliament and made into law. Many Bills are never passed into law.

Name of Bill Year (House of Parliament where introduced)

In-text

… addressed accordingly (Anti-terrorism Bill 2004).

Reference list

Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (House of Representatives).

Tips:

  • Note the name of the Bill is not in italics.
  • You can specify particular clauses of a Bill in-text if you wish, using cl. for one or more clauses. For example (Anti-terrorism Bill 2004, cl. 18).

Scratching your head in confusion? 
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Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)

Speeches, discussions and votes in the Commonwealth, State and Territory Parliaments are known as Parliamentary Debates, or Hansard.

Jurisdiction, House of Parliament Year, Debates, Volume number, Page range.

In-text

... creating a new discourse for discussing change (Australia, House of Representatives 2000, p. 4). Investigation of this issue in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly (2001) ...

Reference list

Australia, House of Representatives 2000, Debates, vol. HR103, pp. 2-9.

New South Wales, Legislative Assembly 2001, Debates, 3 May, pp. 11095-100.

Tips:

  • The Jurisdiction must be wriiten in full. Use Australia, not Commonwealth. for debates in the Federal Parliament.
  • Traditionally you should include the volume number of the Debates, as in the House of Representatives example above, but many online versions of Hansard do not mention the volume number. In such cases it is acceptable to use the day and month of the debate instead.
  • Parliamentary debates should always be referenced as if in print, even if you viewed the Hansard online.

It's never too late to read up on the basics of Havard UTS! 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a Parliamentary debate into EndNote.

Treaties

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters.

When a treaty is ready to be signed, it is 'opened for signature'; and once all required signatures are obtained it becomes operational on the date it 'enters into force'. Treaties are published in official treaty series, usually by the United Nations or its predecessor, the League of Nations.

Title of treaty (Year of publication) Volume number (then) Abbreviated name of treaty series (then) First page number, Opened for signature date, Entered into force date.

In-text

Disputes of this kind were usually settled by treaty, for example the Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands (1921) ...

As stated previously this kind of convention usually precluded further exacerbation of conflict (Aaland Islands convention 1921).

International agreements from this time are telling, including the Provisional arrangement concerning the status of refugees coming from Germany (1936) ...

Whale populations have made a slow recovery since nations finally agreed to impose limits on commercial whaling (International convention for the regulation of whaling 1953). 

Reference list

Aaland Islands convention - see Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands.

Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralisation of the Aaland Islands (1921) 9 LNTS 211, opened for signature 20 October 1921, entered into force 6 April 1922.

International convention for the regulation of whaling (1953) 161 UNTS 74, opened for signature 2 December 1946, entered into force 10 November 1948.

Provisional arrangement concerning the status of refugees coming from Germany (1936) 171 LNTS 75, signed and entered into force 4 July 1936.

Tips:

  • If your treaty has no page numbers or volume number listed, you can leave this element of the reference out.
  • Sometimes a treaty enters into force as soon as it is signed. In this case, at the end of the reference write ‘signed and entered into force’ and then the date.
  • If the treaty name is quite long and you need to refer to it several times in-text, you can use a short form of the treaty name for your in-text citations, for example (Aaland Islands convention 1921). The full treaty name must still appear in the reference list, and if necessary you must also add a 'see' reference into your reference list to direct readers to the full citation (this can be seen in the examples above).

Have more questions about referencing? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a treaty into EndNote.

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