UTS Library

More Sources

If you can't find the source you are trying to reference within this list or anywhere else within our referencing guide, please contact us via Ask a Librarian.

Cochrane systematic reviews

Cochrane systematic reviews can be found in the Wiley Online Library or from Cochrane Library Online. If you find a systematic review in a different source such as PubMed, reference it as a journal article.

Author Year, 'Title of review', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue number, viewed date, <database name>.

In-text

‘Errors in placement of the nasogastric tube can occur; the most severe of these is passing the nasogastric tube into the trachea’ (Bellemare et al. 2006, p. 15).

Reference list

Bellemare, S., Wiebe, N., Russell, K.F., Klassen, T.P. & Craig, W.R. 2006, 'Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration to gastroenteritis in children', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, viewed 3 November 2015, <Cochrane Library>.

Tips:

  • To find the issue number in the Wiley Online database, click the How to Cite link.
  • Despite having PDF’s with page numbers, Cochrane documents are not part of a larger whole, and thus the page range (which always begins with 1) is not necessary in the reference. However it is useful for locating a quote, which is why there is a page number in the in-text example above.

Need more help? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a Cochrane systematic review into EndNote.

Conference paper

Use this format for a single paper from a set of published conference proceedings. To reference the whole conference proceedings as one work, treat it as an Edited Book instead. See unpublished conference paper if the paper or poster presented at a conference was not published in the official conference proceedings.

Author Year, 'Title of paper', Conference name, Publisher, Place of Publication, Page range.

In-text

… into body parts such as the skull (Smith, Thomas & Piekarski 2008). Nedelcu (2012, para. 23) argues that ‘"Sage on the stage" style is not inefficient per se nor is totally outdated, but the stubbornness to limit only to this approach is!’. In an earlier paper from 2002, Jakubowicz reported …

Reference list

Jakubowicz, A. 2002, 'Race vilification and communal leadership', Beyond Tolerance: National Conference on Racism,  Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission, Sydney, viewed 2 September 2009, <http://www.humanrights.gov.au/racial_discrimination/conferences/beyond_tolerance/speeches/jakubowicz.html>.

Nedelcu, A. 2012, ‘Educating net generation students: is “Gutenberg teaching approach” enough?’, The International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education, Carol I National Defence University, Bucharest, viewed 8 November 2018, <Proquest Database>.

Smith, R.T., Thomas, B.H. & Piekarski, W. 2008, 'Tech note: digital foam', IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2008, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, pp. 35-8.

Tips:

  • Year refers to the year of publication of the proceedings (may be a different year than the year the conference was held).
  • Place of publication refers to the main location of the publisher, rather than the location the conference was held.
  • If you viewed a conference paper online that has no page numbers, publisher now refers to the producer or host of the online version, include the date you viewed the source and its URL.

Not sure when to use acronyms in your referencing? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a conference paper found online or in print into EndNote.

Conference paper or poster - unpublished

Sometimes a paper or poster presented at a conference does not get published in the official conference proceedings.

Unpublished conference papers and posters have no publisher, or page numbers, and the year now refers to the year the conference was held. 

Author Year, 'Conference paper title', paper/poster presented to the Conference Name, Conference Location, Conference Date(s).

In-text

Figures trended down in 1995 (Bowden & Fairley 1996). Dyson (2009) observes that at current rates of technological advance, self-aware computers should emerge somewhere around 2030.

Reference list

Bowden F.J. & Fairley, C.K. 1996, 'Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange', paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Dyson, M.B. 2009, ‘Cybernetic neural interfaces’, poster presented to the Rand Corporation National Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, 12-14 October.

Tips:

  • Unpublished conference papers and posters have no publisher, or page numbers, and the year now refers to the year the conference was held.
  • You must also include the conference location, and the days and month the conference was held - note the conference name is not in italics.

Not sure your if your reference list looks like a reference list? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter an unpunlished conference paper found online or in print into EndNote.

Course materials - online

PowerPoint slides, lecture notes, forum posts or subject documents found on UTS Online are referenced like a web page. If you are referencing an eReading such as a journal article or book chapter contained within course material, reference it as a journal article or book chapter.

Author Year, ‘Title’, Subject number, Type of work, UTS, Sydney, viewed date, <UTS Online URL>.

In-text

Groceries are often found in supermarkets (Allen 2012).

Madden (2012) notes that current plastic bottles take hundreds if not thousands of years to biodegrade.

‘My take on this whole engineering debate is that so long as my corn doesn’t talk, I’m happy’ (Khan 2009, para. 6).

Reference list

Allen, B. 2012, 'Things you need to know about groceries', UTS Online Subject 95206, lecture notes, UTS, Sydney, viewed 28 March 2012, <www.online.uts.edu.au /95206/groceries/>.

Khan, K.L. 2009, 'My take on this whole genetic engineering debate [...]', UTS Online Subject 11187, forum post, UTS, Sydney, viewed 26 November 2009, <www.online.uts.edu.au/11187/forum/#879/>.

Madden, X.V. 2012, 'Lecture 6: The life cycle of a plastic bottle', UTS Online Subject 77709, PowerPoint presentation, UTS, Sydney, viewed 22 March 2012, <www.online.uts.edu.au/77709/lecture_6/>.

Tips:

  • You don’t need to reference notes that you took in class. Instead, try to find and reference academic sources that support what is written in your notes.
  • If you are quoting from a page or a post in UTS Online, use para. (the abbreviation for paragraph) in your in-text reference to help the reader locate the quote.
  • If a forum post is too long to quote when used as the title of your reference, use the first few words and then indicate that there is missing content by using [...]

Unsure of where to start?
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter online Course materials into EndNote.

Course materials - in class

Referencing words spoken by a lecturer is very similar to referencing a personal communication, in that you do not need an entry in the reference list. For handouts printed by a lecturer, use the format below:

Author Year, ‘Title’, Subject number, Type of work, UTS, Sydney.

In-text

Machines cannot currently feel love (Bright 2011). When talking about microbiology at UTS, J.B. Smythe (2014, lecture, 11 April) said that ...

Reference list

Bright, A.G. 2011, 'Week 6 handout: ways in which machines can feel love’, UTS Subject 11187, lecture handout, UTS, Sydney.

Tips:

  • You don’t need to reference notes that you took in class. Instead, try to find and reference academic sources that support what is written in your notes.
  • In the examples above, Bright and Smythe are the lecturer's names. Note Smythe's initials in front of the surname, the date, and the fact that this reference to a lecturer's spoken words does not appear in the reference list.

Why are there so many rules?  
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more.

Dataset

Datasets are packages of data associated with a piece of research and are often found in online data repositories.

Author Year, ‘Title’, Publisher, electronic dataset, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

... observed differences (Meachen-Samuels & Van Valkenburgh 2009).

Reference list

Meachen-Samuels, J. & Van Valkenburg, B. 2011, 'Data from: craniodental indicators of prey size preference in the Felidae', Dryad Digital Repository, electronic dataset, viewed 18 April 2015, <http://datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.6h722>.

Tips:

  • Year refers to the year of publication of the dataset, rather than the year of publication of the paper the data was based on. 
  • Title refers to the title of this original paper, preceeded by the words 'Data from:'.
  • Raw data from a dataset should not be quoted directly but should instead be summarised.

Need help with identifying authors?  
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or learn how to enter a dataset into EndNote.

Dictionaries and encyclopedias

If the dictionary or encyclopedia entry has an author, they should be credited both in-text and in your reference list. If you are referencing a crowd sourced resource like Wikipedia, use the Wiki format.

Author Year, ‘Title of entry’, Title of dictionary or encyclopedia, Publisher, Place of publication.

In-text

… 'regular-irregular polyhedrons’ (Want 2003, para. 4). After Akkadia fell there was no tangible imperial authority until the ascension of the third dynasty of Ur, according to Brinton in 1989 (p. 499).

Twilight of the Cockroaches combines live action and animation (Josephus 2006) …

The Macquarie dictionary (2017) defines phlegmatic as … 

Reference list

Brinton, B. 1989, ‘Akkadia’, Dictionary of the ancient world, Acumen Press, Wolverhampton, UK.

Josephus, K. 2006, ‘The twilight of the cockroaches’, Encyclopedia of Japanese animation, viewed 3 November 2018, <www.enycjapananime.com>.

Want, C. 2003, ‘Minimalism’, Oxford Art Online, viewed 5 November 2018, <Oxford Art Online>.

Tips:

  • Generally dictionary and encyclopedias are standard publications in which entries aren’t credited to a particular author. If so, you will only need to cite the name of the dictionary or encyclopedia (in italics) in the text, and not in your reference list. See The Macquarie dictionary example above.
  • If the encyclopedia or dictionary entry is found online, replace the place of publication with a viewed date and URL.
  • If the dictionary or encyclopedia entry is found online behind a password protected database, follow this rule.

Is your reference list ready for your tutor?  
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or learn how to enter a dictionary or encycopedia entry into EndNote.

Golden Target Awards

Golden Target Awards are presented by the Public Relations Institute of Australia for excellence in marketing and public communication campaigns. In the past, these were found in print folders in the Library, but recent Golden Target Awards are published online.

Author Year, ‘Title’, Golden Target Award entry, Publisher, Place of Publication.

In-text

Canberra’s food scene continues to grow and diversify (ACT Government 2006, p. 12). Ergon Energy (2012, para. 56) plans to install 4 hectares of solar panels outside of Townsville by 2016 ...

Reference list

ACT Government 2006, 'Live in Canberra campaign', Golden Target Award entry, Public Relations Institute of Australia, Sydney.

Ergon Energy 2012, 'Townsville Queensland solar city', Golden Target Award entry, Public Relations Institute of Australia, viewed 2 February 2015,<http://www.pria.com.au/documents/item/5892>.

Tips:

  • Place the title of the award entry in single quotes.
  • If viewing the award entry online, replace the place of publication with the viewed date and URL.

Is your in-text referencing correct?  
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or learn how to enter a Golden Target Award into EndNote.

Monument or plaque

In Harvard UTS, monuments and plaques are referenced in a similar way to a physical artwork.

Author Year, Title, Format, Location.

In-text

… seen in the design of commemorative pieces (Sydney Markets Bell Tower 1911; Taylor 1910).

Reference list

Sydney Markets Bell Tower 1911, monument, Haymarket, NSW.

Taylor, A. 1910, Commemoration of laying of first stone of Bell Tower, plaque, Haymarket, NSW.

Tips:

  • The author is the creator of the monument or plaque, or the body or person that was responsible for installing it.
  • If the monument or plaque has no title make up a short description of what the object is commemorating.

Not sure if you are citing correctly? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a monument or plaque into EndNote.

Personal communication

Personal communications are when an individual person or group of people has communicated privately with you. This can take a number of forms, including conversations, emails, letters, text messages and interviews. Such sources are not normally available for consultation except under special circumstances (e.g. by a thesis examiner). For this reason, it is not necessary to refer to personal communications in your reference list.

In-text

M. Jones (1989, pers. comm., 6 May) believed that this was not relevant.

This was confirmed by email (R.J. Brown 2008, pers. comm., 3 July).

Tips:

  • In the text of your document you should specify the year and the date (day month) when the personal communication took place.
  • Note that the initials of the speaker come before the surname.

Need more help with referencing? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more.

Poem

Poems can be found within books or on websites. If the poem is in a book it is usually found in an anthology, or a collection of poems. Because these anthologies and collections are often edited, most poems are best referenced using the chapter in an edited book format below. However, if the poem you are reading has page numbers and is published as a stand-alone entity, use the book format. If the poem is published on a website, use the web page format.

Author Year, 'Title of poem', in Editor(s), Title of book, Edition, Publisher, Place of Publication, Page range.

In-text

Okara speaks of being 'grey, cheeks sunken, face lined' (2016, p. 41). The origin of 'The Three Ravens' (1983) can be traced back to at least the early 17th century. Comparing the text of this poem with that of Milton's Paradise Lost (2019) ...

Reference list

Milton, J. 2019, 'Paradise lost: book 1 (1674 version)', Poetry Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, viewed 28 February 2019, <https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45718/paradise-lost-book-1-1674-version>.

Okara, G. 2016, 'Moods from songs without words', in B.M. Osbey (ed.), Gabriel Okara: collected poems, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, pp. 41-2.

'The three ravens' 1983, in A. Allison & H. Barrows (eds), Norton anthology of poetry, 3rd edn, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, pp. 73-4.

Tips:

  • Note that the initials of the editors come before the surname.
  • The Year should be the year of publication of the book, or of the most recent update of the website, rather than the date the poem was written or first published.
  • If the book you are referencing is the first edition, you do not need to list the edition.
  • If you are referencing a traditional poem with no credited authors, begin the reference with the name of the poem in single quotes, see more examples here.

Can't find a date for your reference? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more.

Reports

Examples of reports are company annual reports, government reports, hospital and health services reports and some ABS publications. Reports are referenced in a similar way to books, or, if found online, web sites.

Author Year, Title, Type of report or report number, Publisher, Place of Publication.

In-text

… and competitions (Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996). From a recent report by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009) …

... and critically ‘appropriate control of anitbiotics is paramount, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus’ (Ducel, Fabry & Nicolle 2002, p. 58).

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Education and work, Australia, May 2009, cat. no. 6227.0, viewed 24 November 2009, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6227.0?OpenDocument>.

Ducel, G., Fabry, J. & Nicolle, L. 2002, Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: a practical guide, WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH2002.12, World Health Organization, viewed 10 April 2014, <http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/whocdscsreph200212.pdf>.

Law Reform Commissioner of Tasmania 1996, Report on public fundraising by charitable institutions, Law Reform Commission report number 75, Government Printer, Hobart.

Tips:

  • If the report is found for free online, remove the place of publication from the reference and add a viewed date and URL. If the report was accessed behind a paywall follow this rule.
  • If the report is found online and the author and the publisher are the same, you don't need to repeat the name as the publisher.
  • If there is no type of report, or report number, you can leave those elements out of the reference.

Does your reference have multiple authors? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a report into EndNote.

Slogan

Refer to the slogan in single quotes in-text with as much context as you can. There is no need to include an entry in your reference list. If the slogan has been published in some source (eg a book or web site), reference that source.

In-text

Gough Whitlam captured the public's appetite for political change with his 'It's time' campaign of 1972. Later slogans such as Fraser's 'Turn on the lights' (Edwards 1977, p. 166) were much less inspirational.

Reference List

Edwards, J. 1977, Life wasn't meant to be easy: a political profile of Malcolm Fraser, Mayhem, Sydney.

Not sure if you should quote or paraphrase? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more.

Software and apps

If you are discussing a video game, or discussing the way a particular piece of software works, use the format below. If you have used a piece of software to create something that was then posted to a website, reference the website rather than the software.

Author Year, Title, Source type, Version number, Publisher, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

... such as the Skyscape medical resource (Skyscape 2012). Assassin's Creed (2006) was one of the earliest big successes on the PlayStation 2 system. Loopy models the effects of inputs to a closed system (Case 2016).

Reference list

Assassin's Creed 2006, computer program, v 1.3, Ubisoft, Berlin.

Case, N. 2017, Loopy, computer program, viewed 8 August 2017, <http://ncase.me/loopy/>.

Skyscape 2012, Skyscape medical resource, mobile app, version 1.8.33, viewed 18 June 2013, <https://play.google.com/store>.

Tips:

  • If the software is a video game, use the title of the game in place of the author, and replace the viewed date and URL with the place of publication.
  • If the author and the publisher are the same, you don't need to repeat the name as the publisher.

Need more help?? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a software program or app into EndNote.

Speech

An unpublished speech you have listened to or recorded yourself is treated like personal communication in Harvard UTS referencing. Like personal communication, you only need to reference in-text and no reference list entry is required.

In-text

... vowed to change (R.M. Jones 2012, speech, 3 May).

... in her speech about Karl Marx at the Sydney Opera House, J. Lopez (2014, speech, 3 January) said that...

Tips:

  • Note that the initials of the speaker come before the surname.
  • If the text of a speech is available online (e.g. YouTube, TED talks, film) or in print, reference the source where you read or heard the speech instead of using the above format.
  • If the speech was given as part of a parliamentary debate, use the Parliamentary Debate (Hansard) format instead

Having second thoughts about your referencing? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more.

Standards and patents

Standards and patents describe new inventions and outline best practices in areas including building, medicine, IT and project management.

Author Year, Title, Patent or standard number, Publisher, Place of Publication, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

... as seen in the field (Cookson 1985, para. 15). Standards Australia (2008, p. 78) define...

Reference list

Cookson, A.H. 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulation transmission systems, US Patent 4554399, Google Patents, viewed 1 June 2018, <https://patents.google.com/patent/US4554399A/en>.

Standards Australia 2008, Personal flotation devices - general requirements, AS 4758.1-2008, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Tips:

  • If the standard or patent has page numbers, the viewed date and URL can be left out, and replaced with a place of publication.

Not sure how to caption an image in your work? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter standards and patents into EndNote.

Thesis or dissertation

A thesis or dissertation is a work of research produced at a university to receive a higher degree, usually a PhD or a Masters by Research. These are referenced in a similar way to books except that the title appears in 'single quotes'.

Author Year, 'Title', Type of thesis, Publisher, Place of Publication.

In-text

... outstanding results (Kirk 2002). In Gazzard's (1986) prominent study ...

Reference list

Gazzard, A. 1986, 'The theoretical underpinnings of philosophy for children', PhD thesis, University of Newcastle, NSW.

Kirk, J. 2002, 'Theorising information use: managers and their work', PhD thesis, University of Technology Sydney.

Tips:

  • Publisher refers to the university where the degree was completed.
  • Include the state or country in your place of publication, if there is a chance of confusion or if the city is not well known.
  • If the university name includes the place of publication, you do not need to list the place again.

Frustrated with a confusing reference? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a thesis into EndNote.

Unpublished material

Unpublished material is material that is not been commercially published, is not published on the internet, and is stored in some kind of repository, archive or private collection (which might be your own collection). Record or catalogue numbers can be left out if not available.

Author Year, 'Title', Format, Record or catalogue number, Archive name, Place of Archive.

In-text

... as seen in the letters of Lawson (1910)... lost till the end of time (Cromwell n.d.).

... can be found in the works of many archivists (Adams 1917; Ecclestone 1943; Lang 1911).

Reference list

Adams, D.E. 1917, 'My journey to Khartoum', in possession of M.A. Adams, Melbourne.

Cormwell, O. n.d. 'Supply requisition', document 16b, Hertford MS, series 4/A34/1823, Russell collection, British Museum, London.

Ecclestone. A. 1934, 'A year in the wilderness', Mitchell Library, Sydney.

Lang, J.T. 1911, 'Letter to H. Lawson, 23 April', private collection, Brisbane.

Lawson, H. 1910, 'Letter to J.T. Lang, 4 March', Lawson papers, file no. H/17b/1933, State Archives of South Australia, Adelaide.

Tips:

  • The format of the document can be left out if it is not relevant or if it is included in the title of the document
  • Unpublished work held in a private residence has the words 'in possession of' in front of the archive name or location.
  • Use private collection if the owner's name is not known or needs to be kept confidential.

Can't find the date for your reference? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more.

Related Questions

1 answer|145 votes|[totalcount]|Yosawan asked about More Sources 6 years ago
1 answer|122 votes|[totalcount]|Katherine asked about More Sources 3 years ago
1 answer|118 votes|[totalcount]|Amelia asked about More Sources 4 years ago
1 answer|102 votes|[totalcount]|Marco asked about More Sources 6 years ago
1 answer|82 votes|[totalcount]|Emma asked about More Sources 1 year ago