UTS Library

Sound, Video and Image

If you can't find the source you are trying to reference within this list or anywhere else within our referencing guide, please contact us via Ask a Librarian.

Image

Use this template for an image found freely on the web, or from a library image database such as ARTStor. If an image is found within a source such as a book, journal article, magazine, etc. reference that source (with an appropriate page number or paragraph number in text to show exactly where the image was found). To reference an image of an Indigenous artwork see Indigenous materials.

Author Year, Title, Publisher, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

Images from this time show libraries to be places of bustling activity (Garden party in the grounds of St Brigids, Double Bay c. 1913). 

Trench construction techiques had advanced by 1917, as can be seen in Bean (1933, p. 329)

The beauty of the star forming Carina nebula was captured by the Spitzer Space Telescope (NASA, JPL-Caltech & University of Colorado 2005). 

Burghers of Calais (1884-9) took Rodin 5 years to complete, whereas The Thinker took only one (Rodin 1880).

Reference list

Bean, C.E.W. 1933, The Australian Imperial Force in France 1917, Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

Garden party in the grounds of St Brigids, Double Bay c. 1913, Woollahra Libraries, Flickr, viewed 12 February 2019, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/woollahra/6114271514/>.

NASA, JPL-Caltech & University of Colorado 2005, All pillars point to Eta, Google Cultural Institute, viewed 5 April 2019, <https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/all-pillars-point-to-eta/hAHHkVicRgRe2w>.

Rodin A. 1880, The thinker, ARTStor, viewed 20 October 2017, <ARTStor>.

Rodin A. 1884-9, Burghers of Calais, photographed by J.Howe, Boston College Fine Arts Department, viewed 3 March 2014, <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/rodin/rodin-burghers.html>.

Tips:

  • If you are referencing a photo of an artwork credited to a photographer you can list the photographer after the title with their initial before their surname.
  • If your image is of a creative work, such as a painting, photograph, building or logo, use the year that the work was created rather than the date the image was uploaded.
  • If there is no author, use the image title in italics in place of the author both in text and in the reference list. If there is no title, you should make up a short descriptive title.
  • If the image comes from a library image database, replace the URL with the database name
  • If you include the image itself in your text, learn how to caption your image here.

Trying to label an image, graph, table or figure in your text? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter an image from a website or library database into EndNote.

Artwork

Use this format if you are referencing an original artwork seen in a gallery or museum, or a photograph you took of an original artwork such as a sculpture, photograph or painting. If you are referencing an Indigenous Artwork please see Indigenous materials.

Artist Year, Title of artwork, Format, Museum or Gallery, Location.

In-text

Olley also painted warm scenes of domesticity, such as Proteas in the kitchen (2000) ... Dupain's The sunbaker (1937) has been acknowleged as one of the most iconic in Australian photography . Works such as Rodin’s Burghers of Calais (1884-9) reject the heroic depictions ...

Reference list

Dupain, M. 1937, The sunbaker, photograph, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney.

Olley, M. 2000, Proteas in the kitchen, painting, private collection.

Rodin, A. 1884-9, Burghers of Calais, sculpture, Calais, France.

 

Tips:

  • If the artwork appears in a public location you do not need to mention the museum or gallery in your reference.
  • If an artwork is located in a private collection replace the location with the words ‘private collection’.
  • If the artwork was created over more than one year, use the year range in the reference, both in-text and in the reference list. If the artwork was created at an uncertain date, use c. before the year to indicate that the date is approximate.

Not sure how to caption an image in your work? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter an artwork into EndNote.

Song

In Harvard UTS, song titles are referred to in single quote marks in your text and reference list. Because songs are widely available in a variety of media, it is simplest to list when the song was made, who created it, and the album it is on. Your reader can then experience the song in their preferred medium, for example, CD or streaming.
If you are referring to a song as a written work or musical score, rather than a recording, reference the work as a book. If you are referring to a particular recorded performance of a song reference the publisher of that performance, for example, YouTube.

Performer Year, 'Song title', Album, Type of work, Publisher, Place of Publication.

In-text

Songs like ‘Star shopping’ came to exemplify the mumble rap genre (Lil Peep 2017). Quincy Jones’s production work in ‘Fly me to the moon’ (Sinatra 1964) was ground breaking. There were many George Bush protest songs during this period, including ‘Dry drunk emperor’ (TV on the Radio 2005).

Reference list

Lil peep 2017, ‘Star shopping’, Come over when you’re sober pt.1, song, First Access, London.

Sinatra, F. 1964, ‘Fly me to the moon’, It might as well be swing, song, Reprise, New York.

TV on the Radio 2005, ‘Dry drunk emperor’, song, 4AD, London.

Tips:

  • If additional authorship details are relevant to your work, for example the writer or producer or a song, mention them in the text of your writing
  • If the song does not come from an album, you can leave this element of the reference out.

Can't find all the information to build your reference? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a song into EndNote.

Album or musical composition

Because these compositions are widely available in a variety of formats, it is simplest to note when the source was created, the artist and the publisher. Your reader can then experience the album or composition in their preferred medium, for example, CD or streaming.
If you are referencing a musical score, rather than a recording, reference it as a book. See other sections if you are referring to a song, live performance or for a particular recorded performance of an album, reference the publisher of that performance, for example, YouTube.

Performer Year, Album title, Type of work, Publisher, Place of Publication.

In-text

... of Smashing Pumpkins’ Siamese dream (1993) contained many major hits.
Georg Solti’s conducting of Wagner’s Ride of the Valkyries (New York Philharmonic Orchestra 1968) ...

Reference list

New York Philharmonic Orchestra 1968, Ride of the Valkyries, musical composition, CBS, New York.

Smashing Pumpkins 1993, Siamese dream, album, Virgin Records, Hollywood.

Tips:

  • Titles for albums and musical compositions like ballet, opera and orchestral pieces are italicised both in-text and in your reference list.
  • If additional authorship details are relevant to your work, for example the writer or producer or a song, mention them in the text of your writing.

Not sure when to use acronyms in referencing? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter an album into EndNote.

Live performances

Live performances including plays, concerts and comedy that have not been recorded should be referred to in text only, as they have not been published. In your work, you must italicise the title of the live performance to indicate this information to your reader.

Recorded live performances should be referenced in terms of where the recording can be found. If they are found on YouTube or other streaming services, see YouTube. If the recording is found on a DVD, reference it as a film. If the recording is found in a private collection (including your own) see unpublished materials.

In-text

The Sydney Theatre Company’s November 2018 performances of Streetcar named desire began to further emphasise the emotional dissolution of Blanche …

Is your reference list a mess? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter an album into EndNote.

Podcast and radio

Because these compositions are widely available in a variety of formats, it is simplest to note when the source was created, the artist and the publisher. Your reader can then experience the album or composition in their preferred medium, for example, CD or streaming.

Author Year, 'Title of episode', Program name, Type of work, Publisher, Publication date, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

... prison population (Crawford 2009). In Pineapple Street Media’s 'Stakeout' episode (2017), the podcast makers ... Popular country musician Lee Kernagan is serenaded by Billy Slater, much to his chagrin (The grill 2018) ...

Reference list

Crawford, M. 2009, 'Shop class as soulcraft', Future Tense, audio podcast, Radio National, Sydney, 5 November, viewed 18 November 2009, <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/futuretense/stories/2009/2728755.htm>.

The grill 2018, radio broadcast, Triple M, 26 October.

Pineapple Street Media 2017,Stakeout’, Missing Richard Simmons, audio podcast, iTunes, 22 February, viewed 13 October 2017, <https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/missing-richard-simmons/id1203092300?mt=2>.

Tips:

  • References beginning with 'The' are not listed alphabetically under T,. List the reference by the subsequent word, see examples here
  • Series titles are capitalised, whereas episode titles are not.
  • If your podcast or radio broadcast has no author, use the Program name in place of the author.
  • If your podcast or radio broadcast has no episode title, leave this aspect out.
  • If the radio broadcast was heard live and is not available online, remove the viewed date and URL from the reference.

Difficult reference got you down? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a podcasts or radio program into EndNote.

Poster

Poster in this case refers to a poster on a wall, for example, a movie poster or advertisement. If you want to reference a poster from a conference use the unpublished conference paper and poster format instead.

Author Year, Title of poster, Type of work, Publisher, Location, Dimensions of poster.

In-text

… including one of Joe Hockey (Hopeless c. 2014). The Information Services office at UTS Library contains various posters, including one of a bowl of fruit (Chart Studio 1997).

… as seen in America: the third century (1976) …

Reference list

Chart Studio 1997, Fruit, poster, UTS Library, Haymarket, NSW, 110cm x 80cm.

Hopeless c. 2014, poster, Surry Hills, NSW, 70cm x 40cm.

Lichtenstein, R. 1976, America: the third century, poster, Mobil Oil Corporation, Museum für Kunst und Gewerb, Hamburg, Germany, 89cm x 60cm.

Tips:

  • If there is no author, begin the reference with the Title in italics, examples here.
  • Use poster text for the title if necessary, or if the poster has no text make up a short description and use that in place of the title.
  • Poster dimensions can be left out if unavailable.
  • Use n.d. if the poster has no date, or c. in front of the year to indicate an approximate date.

Not sure how to caption an image in your work? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a poster into EndNote.

Film

In the Harvard UTS style, feature films and documentaries are usually referred to by their titles, rather than by their 'authors' – such as writers, directors or producers. Because films are available in a variety of formats, it is simplest to note when the movie was made and who released it. Your reader can then experience the film in their preferred medium, for example, DVD or streaming platform.

Title Year, Type of work, Distributor or Publisher, Place of Publication.

In-text

Baz Luhrmann’s early visual style is typified by works such as Muriel’s wedding (1994). Utzon had said that the Opera House should be considered for World Heritage status (The edge of the possible 1998).

Reference list

The edge of the possible 1998, motion picture, Ronin Films, Canberra.

Muriel's wedding 1994, motion picture, Roadshow Entertainment, Sydney.

Tips:

  • To cater to a variety of formats, the 'type of work' for a film is 'motion picture'.
  • If your reference begins with 'The' or 'A’, use the second word of the title when alphabetically ordering it in your reference list.
  • Film titles are not capitalised, apart from the first word and any proper nouns.
  • Place of publication can be left out if unclear.

Not following?  
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a film into EndNote.

Television

In Harvard UTS, television programs are referred to by their titles, rather than by their 'authors' – such as writers, directors etc. Because TV programs are widely available in a variety of formats, it is simplest just to note when the TV program was made and where it was recorded. Your reader can then experience the program in their preferred medium, for example, DVD or streaming platform.

Title Year, Type of work, Publisher, Place of recording.

In-text

… in ‘The Vulcan Hello’ (Star Trek Discovery 2017). In the ‘Canberra firestorm’ episode of Catalyst (2003) ... 

Bookaboo (2017) tries to instil a love of reading in small children …

Reference list

Bookaboo 2017, television program, ABC iView, Sydney.

Catalyst 2003, television program, ABC TV, Sydney, 3 March.

Star Trek Discovery 2017, television program, Netflix.

Tips:

  • If you want to talk about specific episodes of a TV program, mention them in the text of your writing in 'single quotes'.
  • Publisher in this case refers to the channel that broadcasts the TV program.
  • Series titles are capitalised.
  • When watching a news broadcast, you can add the date (day and month) at the end of the reference to assist the reader in finding the broadcast.
  • Leave the place of publication out of your reference if it is unclear.

Interested in where Harvard UTS referencing originates from? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a television program into EndNote.

YouTube

The YouTube reference format can also be applied to Vimeo or any other public streaming video platform. If the video you are watching is behind a paywall, for example, on the Library's EduTV database, see the rules for database materials.

Author Year, Title, Type of work, Publisher, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

… rage quitting is one of the many manifestations of anger online as seen in many gaming channels such as PewDiePie (2017, 7:35).

Use of colour in mise en scene can be seen in works like Dahlia (Mouyis 2017) …

Reference list

Mouyis, A. 2017, Dahlia, video recording, Vimeo, viewed 18 October 2017, <https://vimeo.com/209783901>.

PewDiePie 2017, 7 signs you’re a toxic gamer!, video recording, YouTube, viewed 18 October 2017, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=meqT-KSYj7I>.

Tips:

  • To locate quoted words from a video, insert the start time (min:sec) of the quote in your in-text reference.

Not confident with paraphrasing and quoting? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a Youtube video into EndNote.

Related Questions

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