UTS Library

Website and Social Media


This format covers most webpages – including publications from government websites and organisations, including health policy documents and procedures. It also covers company webpages. Webpages that don’t apply to this category can be seen in the headings below, they mostly take the form of social media applications.

If you can see a person’s name attached to a document on a webpage, use that as the author. If there is no person listed as an author, use the name of the department, organisation, or company that created the website.

If the information is hosted on a website you are viewing is a book, journal, newspaper or magazine article, conference paper or thesis, use those formats instead. If the webpage you are viewing is accessed via the Library website and you have to log in to view, use the database template.

Before referencing a webpage you will need to collect the following information:

  • Person or organisation who wrote or created the webpage (if known)
  • Year the webpage was created or last updated. If the year is not found you can use n.d. instead.
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Type of website (if necessary, eg: weblog, podcast)
  • Organisation responsible for the website. If this is the same as the author, it can be left out.
  • Place where the organisation is located (can be left out if it is unclear)
  • Day month and year you last accessed the website eg. viewed 31 January 2012
  • URL <in angle brackets>

Once you have collected this information you will need to arrange it as displayed in the examples below.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016, Iceland country brief, Canberra, viewed 25 October 2017, <http://dfat.gov.au/geo/iceland/Pages/iceland-country-brief.aspx>.

New South Wales Health 2017, Health care records - documentation and management, viewed 17 October 2017, <http://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments/PD2012_069.pdf>.

McLeod, S. 2016, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Simply Psychology, viewed 9 August 2017, <https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html>.

In Text

In the text of your document the format is (Author Year). Note that the year here is the year the webpage was created or last updated, not the year you accessed it.

If you are sourcing a quotation from a website, you will not be able to quote a page number, so instead use the paragraph number, abbreviated with the term 'para.'

Eg: (Department of Finance 2009, para. 5)

If the webpage is particularly long and unwieldy, describe the section of the website that contains your quotation in the body of your writing, and then mention the paragraph number in the in-text citation.

Eg: In the Summer Collections section of the Fashion Report for 2013, it was predicted that 'red would be the colour for 2014' (Style Daily 2013, para. 16).

For more information about referencing a webpage or social media posts please expand any of the options below. You can also get help with referencing at any time via the Ask a Librarian page. 

How to enter a website into EndNote to make a Harvard UTS reference


Blog or Tweet


If your website is a blog you can (if you wish) reference a particular posting ('in single quotes') as well as the blog's main title. Type the word weblog after the main title.

How to enter a blog into EndNote to make a Harvard UTS reference

In text

(Green 2009)

Reference List

Green, A. 2009, 'Fremantle by-election: should the Liberals run?', weblog, Antony Green's Election Blog, viewed 10 April 2009, <http://blogs.abc.net.au/antonygreen/2009/04/fremantle-by-el.html>.

Tweet or Tumblr

To reference a tweet, use the author's real name; use the Twitter handle as the author only if the author's real name in unknown. Enclose the tweet itself in 'single quotes'. Type the words Twitter post, and the day and month of the post, after the text of the tweet.

If you are using Tumblr you may not have a title for a post and you may not be able to use the entire post as the title. In this case use as many words as you feel is necessary, but if the title is too long instead use the first few words as the title, using […] if necessary to indicate that there are extra words left out.

How to enter a Tweet into EndNote to make a Harvard UTS reference

In text

(Obama 2009)

(totallycorrectpjo 2017)

Reference list

Obama, B. 2009, 'Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020', Twitter post, 28 January,viewed 24 February 2012, <http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366>.

totallycorrectpjo 2017, 'Grover: where's Percy? [...]' , Tumblr, viewed 12 October 2017, <http://totallycorrectpjo.tumblr.com/post/166213769894/grover-wheres-percy-annabeth-somewhere>.


Reddit Post

In text

(KitchenSwillForPigs 2017)

Reference List

KitchenSwillForPigs 2017, ‘You are a dragon with all the same personality traits you have now. What do you hoard?’, Reddit Post, 7 November, viewed 8 November 2017, < https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/7bg8nw/you_are_a_dragon_with_all_the_same_personality/>.

Reddit Comment

In Text

(BarkingPanther 2017)

Reference List

BarkingPanther 2017, ‘If my kitchen is any indicator, plastic grocery bags’, Reddit comment, 7 November, viewed 8 November 2017, < https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/7bg8nw/you_are_a_dragon_with_all_the_same_personality/>.

Facebook and Instagram

To reference a post on Facebook or Instagram, will need to collect the following information:

  • Author
  • Year
  • The first few words of the text of the post or Instagram caption (in single quotes; up to about 5 words, using […] if necessary to indicate that there are extra words left out)
  • The site where the post was placed (eg: Facebook post or Instagram post)
  • Date of the post (day month)
  • date you viewed the post (day month year)
  • URL of the site containing the post (in <angle brackets>).

Facebook post

In text

(UTS Library 2014)

Reference list

UTS Library 2014, 'Welcome back to uni! [...]', Facebook post, 25 February, viewed 27 February 2014, <https://www.facebook.com/UTSLibrary>.

How to enter a Facebook post into EndNote to make a Harvard UTS reference

Instagram Post

In text

(UTS Library 2017)

Reference list

UTS Library 2017, 'What is Librarian Ana looking at? [...]', Instagram post, 3 March, viewed 29 March 2017, <https://www.instagram.com/p/BRJ9h3KDQJ8>.

How to enter an Instagram post into EndNote to make a Harvard UTS reference

Google Earth and Google Maps

Google Earth and Google Maps are referenced in a similar way to websites, however they don’t have authors. Instead list the place you are indicating on the map in text and to begin your reference list.

The elements you will need to build one of these references are:

  • Place name (in italics)
  • Year (generally these images would have been updated in the present year, but use n.d. if you aren’t sure)
  • Name of the mapping service (eg: Google Maps)
  • Viewed date
  • URL

Google Earth
(Old Mammoth 2017)
Old Mammoth 2017, Google Earth, viewed 17 October 2017, < https://earth.google.com/web/@37.619791,-118.94794095,2469.83512934a,36831.01953973d,35y,-0h,0t,0r/data=Ck4aTBJGCiUweDgwOTYwYzQzZmU5ZGYwYzk6MHgyNGMyMWFjNWViNmRiZGE4GQ45DM0k0EJAISIcwiHcvl3AKgtPbGQgTWFtbW90aBgCIAE>.

Google Maps
(Mammoth Lakes 2017)
Mammoth Lakes 2017, Google Maps, viewed 17 October 2017, < https://www.google.com.au/maps/place/Mammoth+Lakes,+CA+93546,+USA/@37.6199063,-119.0179807,12z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x80960c5f79b3179f:0xf114d9d70fee8d6d!8m2!3d37.648546!4d-118.972079>

How to enter Google Earth/Maps into EndNote to make a Harvard UTS reference.


Citing a meme is similar to citing a digital image. The elements you will need to identify are

  • The title of the meme in italics (if the title is not known, create a short title for the meme)
  • The year the meme was published (if known. If the date is not known, use n.d.)
  • The word meme
  • The site where the meme was published (eg: Know Your Meme, Facebook)
  • The date you viewed the site
  • The webpage URL

In text

(I regret nothing 2002)

Reference list

I regret nothing 2002, meme, Know Your Meme, viewed 16 October 2017, < knowyourmeme.com/photos/257271-i-regret-nothing.>.

How to enter a meme into EndNote to make a Harvard UTS reference.


Because wikis crowdsource their writing, you need not list an author. Instead place the name of the page in the wiki in text along with the year the page was last updated.

These are the elements you will need to locate to reference a wiki:

  • Title of page (in italics)
  • Year
  • Publisher (the name of the wiki)
  • Viewed date
  • URL in angle brackets

In text

(Hyacinth Macaw 2017)

(How to help save elephants 2017)

Reference list

How to help save elephants 2017, Wikihow, viewed 5 December 2017, < https://www.wikihow.com/Help-Save-Elephants>.

Hyacinth Macaw 2017, Wikipedia, viewed 6 December 2017, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyacinth_macaw>.

How to enter a wiki into EndNote to create a Harvard UTS reference.

No date or no author

No date

If you can’t see a date listed at the top of a webpage, look at the bottom of the page, sometimes there is a ‘last updated’ message.

If you still can’t find a date for your webpage use n.d. (for 'no date') instead of the year.

eg: (White n.d.)

No author

If there are no listed authors, list the organization as the author. If you do this you do not need to list the organization again as the publisher.

If there is no obvious organisation that created the webpage (check down the bottom of the page), use the title of the webpage as the author, followed by the year the page was published or last updated.

In the following example the website has no author or date, and no listed publication details, so it has to be referenced very minimally! Note that (as always) the webpage title is in italics.

In text

(Jeu du Tock n.d.)

Reference List

Jeu du Tock n.d., viewed 12 March 2012, <http://jeuxstrategie.free.fr/Tock_complet.php>.

Related Questions

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