UTS Library

Website and Social Media

If you can't find the source you are trying to reference within this list or anywhere else within our referencing guide, please contact us via Ask a Librarian. Useful information regarding online sources can be found in the online only section of our guide.

Webpages and social media posts contain dynamic content that can be changed at any time, so you need to include the date you viewed them in your referencing. 

Website

If the information you are viewing online is a bookjournal articlenewspaper or magazine articleconference paper or thesis, use those formats instead.

 If you need help locating all the information for a journal article reference, please refer to the examples provided on this page.

Author Year, Title of webpage, Description, Publisher, Place of Publication, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

…  ‘desire for reputation or respect from others’ (McLeod 2016, para. 11). New Zealand residents can become Australian citizens by conferral, as stated by the Department of Immigration (2018). In NSW, responsibilities include ‘compliance with the requirements of policy’ (New South Wales Health 2017, p. 1)…

Reference list

Department of Immigration 2018, Become an Australian citizen, Canberra, viewed 29 November 2018, <https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/citizenship/become-a-citizen>.

McLeod, S. 2016, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Simply Psychology, viewed 9 August 2017, <https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html>.

New South Wales Health 2017, Health care records - documentation and management, document no. PD2012_069, viewed 17 October 2017, <http://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments/PD2012_069.pdf>.

Tips:

  • Year refers to the year the webpage was last updated.
  • If a person’s name is attached to a document on a web page, use their name as the author. If there is no person listed as an author, use the publisher as the author. When you do this you do not need to use it a second time as the publisher.
  • The publisher is the organisation which is responsible for maintaining the website. As noted above, the publisher can also be the author of a web page.
  • Include the place of publication if you think it will help your reader understand the cultural and geographical contexts of your reference.
  • Use description to include details that may be relevant to some web pages, such as a document number (as in the final example above).
  • If your web page is not in PDF form, use para., short for paragraph, to locate a quote.
  • If your web page has a long URL or is behind a paywall refer to the Online only section.

Can’t find a date for your reference?
Learn about authors, in-text citations and more or how to enter a website into EndNote

For Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, blogs, Google maps, memes, wikis and more; click to expand the headings below.

Twitter and Tumblr

Social media posts from Twitter and Tumblr are referenced in a similar way to webpages, however Twitter or Tumblr are always the publisher of the source. Often there will be no title, in which case we use the text of the post as the title. You must also indicate the day and month the post was published.

Author Year, ‘Title’, Publisher, Publication date, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

Barack Obama announced the initiative via Twitter (2009).

Tumblr is often the choice site for fans of underground comics to come together and share their favourite quotes, for example PJO (totallycorrectpjo 2017) ...

Reference list

Obama, B. 2009, 'Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. [...]', Twitter, 28 January, viewed 24 February 2012, <http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366>.

totallycorrectpjo 2017, 'Grover: where's Percy? [...]', Tumblr, 26 August, viewed 12 October 2017, <http://totallycorrectpjo.tumblr.com/post/166213769894/grover-wheres-percy-annabeth-somewhere>.

Tips:

  • If you do not have a title for a post, and the post is too long to use as the title, use the first few words as the title, then [...] to indicate that there are extra words left out.
  • Use the author's real name if known. If the author’s real name is unknown, use the handle of the author. Copy the author's handle as you see it, do not capitalise the handle as if it were a name.

Is the URL for your reference too long? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a tweet or tumblr blog into EndNote.

Facebook and Instagram

Facebook and Instagram are referenced in a similar way to webpages, however you must indicate the day and month the post was published. Sometimes there will be no title, in which case we use the text of the post as the title.

Author Year, ‘Title of post’, Publisher, Publication date, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

… utilised in their posts on Facebook and Instagram (UTS Library 2014; UTS Library 2017). As portrayed in the colourful example by inting (2018)

Reference list

inting 2018, ‘Coffee in glass’, Instagram, 21 October, viewed 23 October 2018, <https://www.instagram.com/p/BpLNdgSjnRq/?hl=en&taken-by=lnting>.

UTS Library 2014, 'Welcome back to uni! [...]', Facebook, 25 February, viewed 27 February 2018, <https://www.facebook.com/UTSLibrary>.

UTS Library 2017, 'What is Librarian Ana looking at? [...]', Instagram, 3 March, viewed 29 March 2018, <https://www.instagram.com/p/BRJ9h3KDQJ8>.

Tips:

  • If you do not have a title for a post, and the post is too long to use as the title, use the first few words as the title, then [...] to indicate that there are extra words left out.
  • Use the author's real name if known. If the author’s real name is unknown, use the handle of the author. Copy the author's handle as you see it, do not capitalise the handle as if it were a name.

Trouble with your in-text citations? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a Facebook or Instagram post into EndNote.

Blog

Blogs are referenced in a similar way to forum posts and social media, but with the inclusion of the word 'weblog' after the name of the blog, and the blog name in italics.

Author Year, ‘Title of blog post’, Blog name, weblog, Publisher, Place of publication, Publication date, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

The Wentworth by-election was an interesting example (Green 2018).

Reference list

Green, A. 2018, 'Why the results in Wentworth narrowed', Antony Green's election blog, weblog, ABC, Sydney, 5 November, viewed 10 April 2019, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-11-05/why-the-results-in-wentworth-narrowed/10446090>.

Tips:

  • Use the author's real name if known. If the author’s real name is unknown, use the social media handle or username of the author. Copy the author handle as you see it, do not capitalise the handle as if it were a name.
  • If you don't know the publisher or the place of publication, you can leave these out.

Want to know more about referencing in Harvard UTS style? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a blog into EndNote.

Forum post

This format is used for forum posts on free websites like Reddit, 4chan and Stack Overflow. To reference a forum post from UTS Online use the course materials format. Often there will be no title, in which case we use the text of the post as the title.

Author Year, ‘Title’, forum post, Publisher, Publication date, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

Humour is probably the most powerful device for creating interaction and engagement on social media forums as seen in this post from BarkingPanther (2017). Interactions on Reddit take many forms, including users seeking legal advice (taekwonjoe2001 2018).

Reference list

BarkingPanther 2017, ‘If my kitchen is any indicator, plastic grocery bags [...]', forum post, Reddit, 7 November, viewed 8 November 2017, <https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/7bg8nw/you_are_a_dragon_with_all_th>.

taekwonjoe2001 2018, ‘Mother took 500$ dollars from my account to pay tithing […]’, forum post, Reddit, 23 October, viewed 24 October 2018, <https://www.reddit.com/r/legaladvice/comments/9qogz8/mother_took_500_dollars_from_my_account_to_pay/>.

Tips:

  • If you do not have a title for a post, and the post is too long to use as the title, use the first few words as the title, then [...] to indicate that there are extra words left out.
  • Use the author's real name if known. If the author’s real name is unknown, use the handle of the author. Copy the author's handle as you see it, do not capitalise the handle as if it were a name.

Need some more help with online material? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a forum post into EndNote.

Google Earth and Google Maps

Google Earth and Google Maps are referenced in a similar way to webpages, only instead of beginning your reference with an author you use the place name in italics.

Place name Year, Publisher, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

Californian desert topology can be seen in the following examples (Mammoth Lakes 2017; Old Mammoth 2017).

Reference list

Mammoth Lakes 2017, Google Maps, viewed 17 October 2017, <https://www.google.com.au/maps/place/Mammoth+Lakes,+CA+93546,+USA/@37.6199063,-119.0179807,12z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x80960c5f79b3179f:0xf114d9d70fee8d6d!8m2!3d37.648546!4d-118.972079>.

Old Mammoth 2017, Google Earth, viewed 17 October 2017, <https://earth.google.com/web/@37.619791,-118.94794095,2469.83512934a,36831.01953973d,35y,-0h,0t,0r/data=Ck4aTBJGCiUweDgwOTYwYzQzZmU5ZGYwYzk6MHgyNGMyMWFjNWViNmRiZGE4GQ45DM0k0EJAISIcwiHcvl3AKgtPbGQgTWFtbW90aBgCIAE>.

Can't find a date to use in your reference? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a Google Earth or Google Map reference into EndNote.

Meme

A meme is a small piece of text, image or video that is shared over the internet. A meme is referenced like a website, and commonly has no attributed author.

Title Year, Publisher, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

Memes appeared very quickly after the release of Childish Gambino’s This is America, including Crab rave (Noisestorm 2018).

... as seen in the rise of such memes (I regret nothing 2002) ...

Reference list

I regret nothing 2002, meme, Know Your Meme, viewed 16 October 2017, <knowyourmeme.com/photos/257271-i-regret-nothing>.

Noisestorm 2018, Crab rave, meme, Know Your Meme, viewed 9 November 2018, <https://knowyourmeme.com/memes/crab-rave>.

Tips:

  • If the meme does have a known creator, list them at the start of the reference, and move the title to follow the year.
  • If the title is not known, create a short title for the meme.

Missing information in your reference? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a meme into EndNote.

Wiki

Wikis are websites containing reference material and background information on various topics. Generally you should try to avoid referencing wikis, as they are not considered to be an academic standard of information. If you need to reference a wiki then use this format.

Title Year, Name of wiki, viewed date, <URL>.

In-text

Conservation efforts include adopting an animal via charities like the World Wildlife Fund (How to help save elephants 2017, para. 9).

The hyacinth macaw is most commonly found in forested areas of Brazil and Bolivia (Hyacinth macaw 2017) …

Reference list

How to help save elephants 2017, Wikihow, viewed 5 December 2018, <https://www.wikihow.com/Help-Save-Elephants>.

Hyacinth macaw 2017, Wikipedia, viewed 6 December 2018, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyacinth_macaw>.

Tips:

  • Because wikis crowdsource their writing, you do not need to list an author. Instead, place the name of the wiki page in your in-text reference (in italics) along with the year the page was last updated.
  • If you need to quote from a wiki, use a paragraph number with the abbreviation para. to help the reader locate the information on the page.

Unsure on how to find information for your reference? 
Learn more about authors, in-text referencing and more or how to enter a wiki into EndNote.

Related Questions

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