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Where do you place the intext reference? If a whole paragraph information comes from a text do you place it at the end of the paragraph or after each sentence?

3 answers


Hi Irene,

D Litting's picture
D Litting, 4 years ago

Hi Irene,

You have a few options about where to place your in text reference. Usually putting down only once is fine is you are referring to it a lot in the same paragraph. You can use it early :
Davis (2009) says that the climate is warming .....

or you can use it late.

there is evidence the climate is warming (Davis 2009)

There are a full range of possible examples can be found on this page:


Hope this helps!


So what happen if you have a

Huu Mai's picture
Huu Mai, 3 years ago

So what happen if you have a paragraph with more than 4 authors? And they didn't inclue their name in that paragraph, what do you do?

Also I  just want to point out in your previous answer: "later" not "late" and instead of using "early" you can say: "at the beginning of the paragraph" 

Jesus it's so..."uncomfortable" seeing you wrote "late" like that. 


Hi there

Patrick's picture
Patrick, 3 years ago

Hi there

I'm sorry but I don't understand the question. If you mean your reference has more than 4 authors, the different styles have different rules about this. In Harvard UTS, if there are more than three authors (ie four or more authors) we only put the first author in the in-text citation and replace all the others by "et al.", for example (Davis et al. 2001), or Davis et al. (2001) ...

I'm not sure what you mean by "didn't include their name in that paragraph". The in-text reference should be to the work where the paragraph comes from, or is paraphrased from.

If you mean that the paragraph was paraphrased from several works, then we put these all together in the in-text reference, in alphabetical order of the first author names. The different works are separated by a semi-colon, for example (Davis 2002; Jones & Smith 1998; Mason et al. 2008; Thomson, Jones & Davis 2001). In this case it is better to put the references at the end rather than at the beginning of the paragraph (it looks cumbersome otherwise).

Hope this helps


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