UTS Library

Keyword Search

Browse Questions

referencing for personal correspondence

How to reference a personal correspondence(in text) and in reference at end of essay

2 answers


Hi Bernie,

D Litting's picture
D Litting, 5 years ago

Hi Bernie,

When referring to personal communications, you generally reference in the text but not in the reference list, as the personal communication is not findable to the searcher. We have some text on this I can paste here from our referencing guide.

Personal communications can take a number of forms: conversations, emails, letters, interviews and so on. Records of these are normally kept in a secure location by the researcher and, for reasons of privacy, are not normally available for consultation except under special circumstances (eg by thesis examiners). For this reason it is not normally necessary to refer to personal communications in your reference list.

In the text of your document you should specify the year and the date (day month) when the personal communication took place. Note the use of initials in front of the surname.

Examples of in-text references:

M. Jones (1989, pers. comm., 6 May) believed that this was not relevant.

This was confirmed by email (R.J. Brown 2008, pers. comm., 3 July).


Hope that helped!


David...your a sweetheart ..

Bernie's picture
Bernie, 5 years ago

David...your a sweetheart ...thanks a mill. If you have time to reply to my question for (reminder) of how to do group in text references, I would greatly appreciate it,


Answer question