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Referencing a 'paper'


I am trying to reference a stand alone paper published by an academic with a publisher (Institute for Public Relations). However it is not a journal article or report, nor a dissertation or PhD. It's more of a stand alone document. There's no 'paper' option and I am unsure what this should fall under?


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Hi Emma,

Steven's picture
Steven, 8 months ago

Hi Emma,

yes, the term 'paper' is used in various contexts to mean different things, so we don't have an exemplar in the referencing guide. Rather than trying to find an example of a reference to a 'paper', instead think about what information you have regarding the source (eg author, title, year of publication, publisher, place) and how you could construct a reference that would allow your reader to find the paper.

Is the paper available online? If so I would recommend using the examples for online sources. Also the examples for reports might be useful. A physical report is really just a book with some extra info if it is part of a series. An online report is really just a webpage with some extra info.

For example here are some 'working papers' but they could be referenced as 'webpages'



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